AP Psychology Final Exam Review 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Arachnophobia
Fear of spiders
insomnia
an inability to sleep
Conditioning
process of learning associations
hormones
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
Solomon Asch
Social Psychology. Conformity experiments- people incorrectly reported lengths of lines. Impression formation study- professor was warm or cold.
centration
a preoperational thought pattern involving the inability to take into account more than one factor at a time
John Watson
behaviorism; nature vs nurture
operant conditioning procedure for establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior
shaping
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information in order to fix it in memory, such as practicing a list of terms to memorize
forensic psychologist
applies psychological concepts to legal issues
industrial/organizational psychologist
applies psychological principles to the workplace to improve productivity and the quality of work life
denial
a defense mechanism in which unpleasant thought or desires are ignored or excluded from consciousness
expectancy
expectation about how events are interconnected
Hypothalamus
Small brain structure beneath the thalamus that helps govern the release of hormones by the pituitary gland and regulates drives such as hunger and thirst.
Evidence-Baded Practice
Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
Cognitive Therapy
change irrational thoughts, negative emotions and thoughts
rational, emotive
Robert Ellis - challenge the client
Behavior Therapy
A therapeutic application of principles regarding conditioning and learning
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
cerebellum
structure that coordinates fine muscle movement, balance
Bulimia nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise.
counterconditioning
conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
Tourete's disorder
an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of multiple physical (motor) tics and atleast one vocal (phonic) tic
fovea
the central focus area of the retina
Reasoning
The purposeful process by which a person generates logical and coherent ideas, evaluates situations, and reaches conclusions.
flashbulb memories
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence
iconic
term that describes the memory of images
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of teh brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex; includes hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
secondary reinforcer
learned reinforcer (ex. money, grades, approval, praise)
REBT
Based on idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are cause of mental disorders
neuron
nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
ossicles
three tiny bones in the middle ear
mnemonics
memory aids designed to facilitate the recall of new info
morphemes
in language, the smallest units that carry meaning (prefixes, root words, etc.)
Psychophysics
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them.
Glucose
C6H12O6
the simplest sugar in teh body required for daily bodily processes
Mental image
A mental picture or representation, usually visual
groupthink
tendency for group members to think alike with certainty of correctness, biased perceptions of outgroup members, and generally defective decision-making processes
terminal buttons
small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 287)
Motor Neurons
Neurons that convey nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
personal control
a sense of controlling your environment rather than feeling helpless.
undifferentiated schizophrenia
when people have symptoms of schizophrenia that are not sufficiently formed or specific enough to permit classification of the illness into one of the other subtypes
drive reduction
theory that claims that behavior is driven by a desire to lessen drives resulting from needs that disrupt homeostasis
nature vs. nuture
the difference between learned and known actions. Develop over time or start from birth.
Skinner Box
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
eidetic
describes a type of visual memory that is retained for a long time; photographic
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
Information- processing model
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved
manic episode
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
Weber's law
the principle that the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
Somatic Nervous System
The branch of peripheral nervous system that transmits signals form the sensory organs to the CNS, and from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.
Heuristic
a thinking strategy that allows us to make judgments and solve problems
Gate-Control Theory
theory that the spinal cord contains neurological "gates" that block pain signals or allows them to pass to the brain. this is oppened by the activity (rubbing a part of the body will make it feel better)
primacy effect
the tendency to recall items better when the are learned first
Pyshologist
an individual who holds a Ph.D in psychology
Cognitive Map
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
teratogens agents
such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 141)
division of the peripheral nervous system that enables voluntary control of the skeletal muscles
Somatic nervous system
Ratio Data
numbers can be compared as multiples of one another
ex: weight
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A group of disorders that include impaired motor development, permanent and irreparable mental retardation, facial deformities, deformed limbs, and malformed genitals.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Branch of the automatic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
light adaptation
the process of adjustment by which the eyes become less sensitive to light in a bright environment
Social Norms
#9, Pg. 705, chpt. 18.
A group's expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members' attitudes and behaviors.
Legitimization of authority
socialization leading us to accept and follow the demands of an authority figure
Bipolar Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Dissociative amnesia
A sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting.
basal ganglia
four large groups of nerve cells, that help to regulate motor performance
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 319)
Sternberg's Intelligence Theory
- One fundamental issue of debate is whether intelligence refers to a single ability, a small group of abilities, or a wide variety of abilities.
- Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory argues that three types of intelligence exist:
1. Analytic intelligence involves the skills traditionally thought of as reflecting intelligence: the ability to compare and contrast, explain, and analyze.
2. Creative intelligence focuses on people's ability to use their knowledge and experiences in a new and innovative ways.
3. Practical intelligence refers to "street-smarts" or the ability to apply what we know to real-world situations.
cognitive dissonance
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
event related potentials
brain waves shown on the EEG in response to stimulation
Major depression disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings o worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
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