AP Psychology Final Review 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
summation
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Carl Jung
collective unconscious
Menarche
the first menstrual period.
Ivan Pavlov
Russian Physiologist, pioneered classical conditioning.
Development
Also encompasses qualitative changes in complexity, often accompanied by quantitative increases in size or amount
retina
the light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball
PET
positron emission tomography, measures radioactive glucose (activity)
Young-Helmholtz
tri chromatic color vision theory
Dix
aroused worldwide awareness of inhumane treatment for the mentally ill and establish 32 mental hospitals around the world
denial
a defense mechanism in which unpleasant thought or desires are ignored or excluded from consciousness
Specific phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, along with a compelling desire to avoid it.
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Contextualist
Theorists of intelligence that focus largely on the context in which an individual is observed.
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
Phalic
(3-6 years) Pleasure obtained from stimulation of genitals
abnormal behavior
behavior which is statistically unusual, maladaptive, and personally distressing to the individual
Motor Cortex
Controls voluntary movements. Located at the back of the frontal lobe.
Amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speed-up body functions of associated energy and mood changes
plasticity
te brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain reoganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
synapse
junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 284)
transcience
the impermanence of a long-term memory. Long term memories fade over time
Confederate
Actor who participates in an experiment pretending to be a subject but in actuality is working for the researcher
self-efficacy
one's ability to act effectively to bring about desired results; from Bandura
Substance P
sends pain messages, concentrated in vomiting center of the brain.
Homeostasis
Maintenance of a constant state of inner stability or balance
confounding variable
extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Partial Reinforcement
Intermittent Reinforcement - A given type of operant response is rewarded some of the time, but not all of the time.
Likert Scale
Asks respondents which of several options best describes the extent to which they are experiencing an emotion.
Developmental Stages
Periods of life initiated by significant transitions or changes in physical/psychological functioning
Cohort Effects
the distinctive effects of a particular group of participants who have lived through a particular period of time.
Conservation
The principle that properties such as number, volume, and mass remain constant despite changes in the forms of objects; it is acquired during the concrete operational stage.
deinstitutionalization
movement begun in 1950s to remove patients who were not considered a threat to themselves or the community from mental hospitals
comorbidity
the tendency for people diagnosed with one mental disorder to exhibit symptoms of other disorders as well
parietal lobe
sensory information to the body (muscles, organs, joints, taste buds)
Foot-in-the-door technique
gaining compliance to a smaller request in order to gain compliance to a larger one
ADHD
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
independent
type of variable manipulated by the experimenter
Antidepressant Drugs (Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors)
Prozac-Fluxetine; Zoloft- Seratraline; Paxil- Paroxetine; Celexa- Citaopram; these drugs are for depression, bulimia, panic disorder, OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
iconic memory
storage retaining information : visual stimuli, picture image memory
the factor being manipulated and tested by the investigator
Independent variable
Human Factors
interaction of people and machines, write directions, place controls in certain areas (SULLY)
where to put things in new cars, placement of radio, speakers, etc.
write directions for products
bipolar disorder
mood disorder in one experiences both manic and depressed episodes
Projective Tests
Devices or instruments used to assess personality, in which examinees are shown a standard set of ambiguous stimuli and asked to respond to the stimuli in their own way.
educational psychologist
focuses on how effective teaching and learning take place
self-serving bias
he tendency to assign oneself credit for successes but to blame failures on external forces
Serial Position Curve
Represents the probability that each of a series of given items will be recalled, given the order in which the items were presented in a list, or their respective serial positions.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer.
Experimental Group
Group that is exposed to the independent variable.
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
free recall
a type of explicit-memory task in which a person must reproduce info w/o the benefit of external cues
representativeness heuristic
a tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event in terms of how typical it seems
Retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Social facillitation
when the presence of others improves our ability to perform tasks well
Memory
The system that allows us to retain information and bring it to mind
dissociative fugue
disorder in which one travels away from home and is unable to remember details of his past, including often his identity
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
self-concept
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" (Myers Psychology 8e p. 161)
bipolar cells
cells in visual system that connect photoreceptors(rods and cones) to the ganglion cells
Non declarative memory
houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses and emotional responses.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)
correlation coefficient
a number that expresses the degree and direction of the relationship between 2 variables, ranging from -1 to +1
divergent thinking
a type of creative thinking in which one generates new solutions to problems
locus of control
refers to general expectancy as to whether fate dos or not determine outcomes in life
Type A Personality
Friedman and Rosenman's term for the coronary-prone behavior pattern of competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
absolute threshold
the weakest level of a stimulus that can be correctly detected at least half the time
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions' rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning , remembering, thinking, and speaking.
availability heuristic
the tendency to judge events as more likely to occur when information pertaining to them comes readily to mind
hemispheres
we have two, right and left, and some brain functions seem to centered in one or the other
higher order conditioning
a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus.
Thematic Apperception Test
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
creates a computerized image using a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves
Regression Toward the Mean
The tendency for unusual events to return toward their average state.
Acquisition Learning Curve
at first there may be no special response, but after repeated conditioning gradually there will likely be a learned response
Make Sense of Neural Static
neural activity is random and the brain tries to make sense of it
stimulation of area that processes visual images and the limbic system (emotions), frontal lobe is idle (which controls inhibitions)
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