AP Psychology Memory 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Getting information out.
schemata; variation of elaborative rehearsal; a framework or mental representation of an event, object, situation, person, process, or relationship stored in memory that leads one to expect something; like a stereotype but not, a framework; example a person wearing scrubs in a stethoscope is a ___? schema causes the answer to be a Dr.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
we select certain elements (information) for further processing
Memory aids, espeically those techniques that use vivd imagery and organizational devices
The conscious repetition of information.
The retention of encoded information over time.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Involved in forming and storing implicit memories created by classically conditioned reflexes.
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings
the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagine, or learned; first explored by Hermann Ebbinghaus
The processing of information into the memory system; for example, by extracting meaning.
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten.
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
frontal lobe
storage of semantic and episodic memories
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. (ex: game, school, work)
Semantic Memory
Generalized knowledge of the world that does not involved memory of a specific event. Ex: Like semantic encoding (go look for it).
Proactive Interference
Old information interferes with the retrieval of new information
short-term memory (STM)
called primary memory by William James; STM or working memory; stores information taken from sensory registers and works on that information; capacity is 1.5 to 2 seconds, 7-10 items; encoding is completed by maintenance (rote) personal, can be phonetic (verbal) or iconic (visual); can only work on one task at a time sufficiently grasped both tasks are completed inadequately
Mood Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Primacy effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
memory construction
Being asked to explain why a previously observed stranger was feeling angry has been found to influence people's perceptual memories of that person's facial expression. This best illustrates the dynamics of:
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.)
Source Amnesia
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
Belief Bias
The tendency for our beliefs to distort our logic.
Retroactive Interference
When the learning of new information interferes with recall of older information. Ex: Think of it like this, retro is like "new" and to learn you need to be "active".
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory of events (not skills/knowledge) occuring prior to a brain injury
sensory receptors
entry points for raw data that has potential to become a memory; length of stay is only a couple of seconds; unlimited capacity; experiment-George Sterling (1960) shows that echoes (auditory) lasts longer than icons (visual) masking
In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was engaging in the process of:
decay theory
theory that argues that the passage of time causes forgetting
Anterograde Amnesia
A loss of memory for any event occurring AFTER the injury.
short term
When you have to make a long distance call, dialing and unfamiliar area code plus a 7digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up bumber. This best illustrates the limited capacity of what kind of memory?
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list.
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