AP Psychology Midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
aptitudes
innate potentialities
Delusions
firmly held false beliefs
Frontal lobe
planning and judgement
Systematic desensitization
A three-stage counterconditioning procedure in which people are taught to relax when confronting stimuli that forming elicited anxiety.
accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
cognitive approach
psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; think/reason; and use language
Interpretation
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 383)
Grouping
perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
recognition
identify correct choice from several options
Panic Attack
Anxiety disorders characterized as acute anxiety, accompanied by sharp increases in autonomic nervous system arousal, that is not triggered by a specific event.
genital stage
Freud's stage of psychosexual development when adult sexuality is prominent
*thyroid gland
produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth
Inverted U Function
Describes relationship beteween arousal and performance. Both high and low levels of arousal produce lower performances than a moderate level of arousal
Factor Analysis
A statistical procedure that identifies factors, or clusters of related items, that seem to define common ability. Using this procedure, psychologists have identified several clusters, including verbal intelligence, spatial ability, and reasoning ability factors.
antipsychotic drugs
powerful medicines that lessen agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations and delusions, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep behavior especially in schizophrenic patients (also called neuroleptics)
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
polygraph
a medical instrument that records several physiological processes simultaneously (e.g., pulse rate and blood pressure and respiration and perspiration)
Broca's Area
controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 367)
Thin intricate covering of interconnected neural cells atop the cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral cortex
Threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the combined signals trigger a reaction
prejudice
a negative attitude formed toward an individual or group without sufficient experience with the person or group
set point
preset natural body weight, determined by the number of fat cells in the body
Walter B. Cannon
motivation; believed that gastric activity as in empty stomach, was the sole basis for hunger; did research that inserted balloons in stomachs
Zygote
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
brainstem
oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells upon entering the skull; controls fundamental survival processes like heartrate and breathing
Retroactive Interference
Occurs when interfering information is presented AFTER the information that is to be remembered.
Acquisition
Refers to the initial stage of learning something. The CS and UCS are paired, gradually resulting in a CR.
Phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 650)
Semantic Encoding
The processing of information into memory according to its meaning.
Denial
The defense mechanism in which people refuse to believe or even perceive a painful reality.
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people more adaptive ways of thinking and acting in order to eliminate maladaptive thinking and emotional reactions
Frontal Lobes
Involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
Drugs
drug cravings and taste aversions may be acquired through classical conditioning
Subconscious or Unconscious
dream state or less aware.
The Desades use harsh discipline with their children, use punishment more often than praise, and refuse to discuss the reasons behind family rules. The Desades might be categorized as ________ parents.
authoritarian
Norms
a description of the frequency at which particular scores occurs, allowing scores to be compared statistically.
Behavioral Psychology
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 317)
hyperopic
condition where vision is better for seeing distant things aka farsightedness
Criterion related validity
Estimated by correlating subjects scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test. Example: Scores on pilot aptitude test versus scores on performance in pilot training.
Mirror Neurons
frontal lobe area
neural basis for observational learning
humans and monkeys
absolute threshold
intensity level at which one can detect a stimulus 50% of the time
Variable-ratio Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after a predetermined but variable number of responses has occurred
Structuralism
A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related (Titchner)
monocular
terms that means "one eyed", used to indicate the sort of of enviromental cues to depth perception tha tonly require one eye, for example, interposition
Cognitive Development
The study of how mental skills accumulate and change with increasing physiological maturity and experience.
Central Nervous System
The brain and the spinal cord
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an even we have experienced, read about, heard about, or imagined
Social Learning Theory
People learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Alzheimer's disease
a fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die, causing loss of memory, reasoning, emotion, control of bodily functions, then death
learned helplessness
a learned expectation that one cannot control important life outcomes, resulting in apathy and depression
imprinting
a primitive form of learning in which some young animals follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see and hear
Medualla Oblangata
Lowest part of brainstem that connects pons to the spinal cord and serves as a cushion.
Reliability
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
crystallized intelligence
The specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence
Anxiety disorders
A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.
behavior contract
An agreement between the therapist and client (school psychologist, student, parent and teacher) in which the client (student or patient) agrees to carry out certain behaviors, usually between sessions but sometimes during the session as well
negative symptoms
signal the abscence of a function (flat affect)
ex. lack of emotion, low energy
identity vs. role confusion
Erikson's stage during which teenagers and young adults search for and become their true selves
binocular cues
depth cues that are based on two eyes
endocrine system
the slow messenger system of the body; produces hormones that affect many bodily functions
Fixed-Interval (FI)
The reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed. Example: A rat is reinforced for the 1st lever pressed after a 2-minute interval has elapsed and then must wait another 2 minutes to earn the next reinforcement.
tympanic membrane
the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on psychological processes and disorders
somatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system; transmits information about body movements and what's happening on the outside of the body
Representative Heuristic
A rule of thumb for making adecision based on the assumption that the given sample is representative of all cases
resting potential
stable, negative charge when a cell is inactive
Thyroid Gland
An endocrine gland in the neck that secretes hormones involved in regulating metabolic functions and physical growth.
Generative language
A limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate an endless array of novel messages. You can create and understand sentences never spoken before.
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lboes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
a large-scale test designed to measure a multitude of psychological disorders and personality traits
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO)
one of the major classes of antidepressants, which increases the availability of neurotransmitters related to emotional states by limiting the action of an enzyme that normally breaks down these neurotransmitters in the synapse
serial position effect
this tells us that the best recall of a list of items will be of those at the beginning of the list
Dream theory: Problem Solving View (Cartwright)
Dreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems and the emotional issues in one's life.
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