AP Psychology Module 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
directs body maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, as well as controlling the endocrine system through the pituitary gland; neural structure below the thalamus
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
angular gyrus
translates visual information into auditory information
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and large doses before experiencing the drugs effect
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
The study of parnormal phenomena, including ESP & psychokinesis.
Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness; as distinct from unconsciousness, resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
achievement exams
measure's a person's current knowledge
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Sleep Apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
Opium and its derivatives such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
Absolute Threshold
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 % of the time.
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.
refers to the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.
Aptitude test
are designed to predict future performance. They measure your capacity to learn new information, rather than measuring what you already know.
the brain's sensory hub, a joined pair of egg-shaped structures atop the brainstem
Visual Cliff
A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Phi Phenomenon
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.
Night Terrors
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, these occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered.
Middle Ear
The chamber between the eardrum and the cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the ear. Drum on the cochlea's oval window.
William Wundt
His 1879 experiment that aimed to measure the fasted and simplest mental processes was psychology's first experiment.
Confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Example: the assumption that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction  and that Iraq posed an immediate threat.
mentally retarded
about 1% of the population
more males than females are mentally retarded
a majority of the mentally retarded can learn academic skills.
Blind Spot
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there.
belief perservance
the tendency for people to cling to  a particular belief even after the information that led to the formation of the belief is discredited.
Behavior genetics perspective
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
Tried to minimize teacher bias in evaluating children.
mental age
mental aptitude is a general capacity that shows up in various ways.
made no assumptions why  a particular child was slow, average or precocious.
mental orthopedics
wanted to improve education/ afraid of labeling of children
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