Ap Psychology Sem. Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Carl Rogers
Humanistic psychology pioneer
observational learning
learning by observing others
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
periodical, natural loss of consciousness
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
cognitive neuroscience
an interdisciplinary field emphasizing brain activity as information processing; involves cognitive psychology, neurology, biology, computer science, linguistics, and specialists from other fields who are interested in the connection between mental processes and the brain
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
top-down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
the sense or act of hearing
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
Biopsychosocial Approach
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
William Wundt
Introspective psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science)
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
NREM sleep
encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Little Albert
Watson's study on the generalization of fear; Conditioned subject to be afraid
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
humanistic psychology
perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
personality psychology
The study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles/glands
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
PET scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
gate-control theory
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
posthypnotic suggestions
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject no longer is hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Social-Cultural Psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental processes function- how they enable us to adapt survive, and flourish
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
Developmental Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
experimental psychologists
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
experimental group
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
John Watson
founder of behaviorism
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions; detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
Albert Bandura
bobo doll experiment, observational learning
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
broca's area
controls language expression—an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the brain and spinal cord
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious: Id, Ego, Superego
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
state of awareness of ourselves and our environment
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
split brain
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them.
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; show brain function.
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; show brain anatomy
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Behavioral Psychology
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
informed consent
an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behaviors/events
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
higher-order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
in CC, the initial stage, when one links a neural stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neural stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
occipital lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
cochlear implant
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
Psychoanalytic Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
Charles Darwin
Theory of Evolution; survival of the fittest; origin of species
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
Cognitive Psychology
branch of psychology that focuses on such mental processes as thinking, problem solving, decision making, and use of language
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
frequency theory
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
discriminative stimulus
in OP, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
human factors psychology
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
Basic Research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
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