AP Psychology Sensation and Perception 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
activation of senses
process of understanding perceptions
cells activated by color
energy converted to neural impulse
stimuli below our absolute threshold
sensory adaptation
decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation
olfactory bulb
gathers messages from olfactory receptor cells and sends info to brain
perceptual set
predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way
signal is present and the participant reports detection
Frequency theory
holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates.
specialize visual receptors that lay a key role in night vision and peripheral vision.
Visual agnosia
An inability to recognize objects-even though their eyes function just fine.
Motion parallax
involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates.
Close are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry because the focus of light from distant objects falls a little short of the retina. This focusing problem occurs when the cornea or lens bends light too much, or when the eyeball is too long.
sensory habituation
perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them
images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed
signal detection theory
effects of distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world, tries to predict what we will perceive among competing stimuli
object close together more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
Law of pragnanz
(aka principle of simplicity) refers that when multiple interpretations are possible, we tend to create the simplest one.
Kinesthetic system
Monitors the positions of the various parts of the body.
Volley principle
holds that groups of auditory nerve fibers fire neural impulses in rapid succession, creating volleys of impulses.
light that enters pupil is focused by the lens
blind spot
spot where optic nerve leaves nerve (has no rods or cones)
binocular disparity
The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth
oval window
thin membrane between ear bones and cochlea
Correct rejection
The signal is not present and the participant does not report detection.
Top-down processing
A progression from the whole to the elements.
Distal stimuli
Stimuli that lie in the distance (that is, in the world outside the body)
The opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye.
A tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot.
Monocular depth cues
clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone.
monocular cues
depth cues that do not depend on having two eyes
autokinetic effect
if a spot of light is projeced steadily onto the same place on a wall of an otherwise dark room and people are asked to stare at it, they will report seeing it move
phi phenomenon
series of lightbulbs turned on and off at a particular rate will appear to be one moving light
False alarm (false positive)
Signal is absent, but the participant detects it.
Pictorial depth cues
clues about the distance that can be given in a flat picture.
relative size cue
you would draw boxcars closer to the viewer as larger than the engine off in the distance
figure ground relationship
what part of a visual image is the figure and what part is the ground/background?
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