a strong emotion
strong feelings of dislike
more than average fatness
|plutchik's color wheel||
anger/fear, disgust/acceptance, sadness/joy, surprise/anticipation - contempt, remorse, disappointment, awe, submission, love, optimism, aggressiveness
foolish and usually extravagant passion or love or admiration
- Automatic behaviors performed in response to specific stimuli.
- Even though psychologists debate whether humans are born with any instincts, they agree that our behavior is also motivated by other biological and psychological factors
a medical instrument that records several physiological processes simultaneously (e.g., pulse rate and blood pressure and respiration and perspiration)
internal states that prompt inquisitive, stimulation-seeking, and exploratory behavior
needs or wants that drive goal-directed behavior
Humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs.
an emotion experienced in anticipation of some specific pain or danger (usually accompanied by a desire to flee or fight)
disproportionately affect young women, in large part because of a cultural obsession to achieve unrealistic standards of thinness
body cells that store fat
- A kind of eating disorder
- Anorexics starve themselves to below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight.
- The vast majority of anorexics are women.
- Biological needs (e.g., thirst).
- Drive reduction theory states that our behavior is motivated by biological needs.
|fatuous (foolish) love||
involves passion and commitment, "whirlwind" love/marriage within a few weeks
|romantic love example||
most couples' relationships; can become consumate love or fizzle out into empty love
evidences arousal theory; the more complex a task, the lower level of arousal that can be tolerated without interference before the performance deteriorates; ex. used in class-driving to school, driving angry, finding a new location, boiling an egg
theory of motivation; each individual has an optimal level of arousal (alertness, paying attention) that varies from one situation to the next; maintained by desire at that moment; may affect your performance (Yerkes-Dodson Law); Advantages-sensation or thrillseekers
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions
motive or desire to avoid failure
|self-actualization stage of hierarchy||
fulfillment of individual potential
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
- Tries to explain the motivations behind more complex behaviors.
- Examines our desires to master complex tasks and knowledge and to reach personal goals
- Humans (and some other animals) seem to be motivated to figure out our world and master skills, sometimes regardless of the benefits of the skills or knowledge
- Studies in achievement motivation find that some people have high achievement motivation and consistently feel motivated to challenge themselves more than do other people
|Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs||
Psychologist Abraham Maslow pointed out that not all needs are created equal
- Predicts which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first.
- We will act to satisfy biological needs like survival and safety. Then, we will act to satisfy our emotional needs like love and self-esteem. Finally, once the previous goals have been met, we will want to attain our life goals like satisfaction and self-actualization, a need to fulfill our unique potential as a person
|hierarchy of needs||
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
behaviors animals are born knowing how to do
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
|triangular model of love||
sternberg's conceptualization of love relationsips (consumate love = intamacy + passion + commitment
|Drive Reduction Theory||
- States that our behavior is motivated by biological needs.
- A need is one of our requirements for survival (e.g., food, water, shelter).
- A drive is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need.
- Our body seeks homeostasis, a balanced internal state. When we are out of homeostasis, we have a need that creates a drive.
- Drives can be categorized in two ways: primary drives and secondary drives
- Part of the hypothalamus involved in hunger motivation.
- Stimulating this area causes an animal to eat.
- Destruction of this area destroys hunger, and the animal will starve to death unless forced to eat.
- If the hypothalamus functions normally, this area and the ventromedial hypothalamus oppose each other and signal impulses to eat and stop eating at appropriate times.
- Occurs when you must choose between two unattractive outcomes
- For example, if your parents gave you a choice one weekend between staying home and cleaning out the garage or going on a family trip to visit some distant relatives, you might experience an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
|basic universal emotions||
there are six primary emotions and facial expressions that are recognized world wide
|physiological stage of hierarchy||
hunger, thirst, avoidance of pain, sexual gratification, elimination
|safety stage of hierarchy||
safe and secure housing, protection from crime and harsh weather
|love and belongingness stage of hierarchy||
emotional intimacy, friendships, social connections
- Exists when one event or goal has both attractive and unattractive features.
- If you were lactose-intolerant, an ice-cream cone would present such a conflict; the taste of the ice cream is appealing but its effect on you are not.
|Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation||
- Often used to explain addictive behaviors.
- States that people are usually at a normal, or baseline, state. We might perform an act that moves us from the baseline state, such as smoking a cigarette.
- These acts may be initially pleasurable (because nicotine is a stimulant and it makes us feel a good "buzz"), but the theory states that we eventually feel an opponent process, meaning a motivation to return to our baseline, neutral state
- Do not confuse the Opponent Process Theory of Motivation with the Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision
|consummate love example||
what most couples strive for in their relationships; it's harder to maintain than to achieve; 'fairy tale' love
|changing attitude to reduce dissonance||
Giving blood isn't that important. They have alot.
|James-Lange Theory of Emotion||
- One of the earliest theories about emotion was put forth by William James and Carl Lange.
- Suggests that we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
- For example, when the big bad wolf jumps out of the woods Little Red Riding Hood's heart races. This physiological change causes her to feel afraid.
|changing behavior to reduce dissonance||
giving blood at the next blood drive