Terms Definitions
liking example
a strong emotion
strong feelings of dislike
more than average fatness
plutchik's color wheel
anger/fear, disgust/acceptance, sadness/joy, surprise/anticipation - contempt, remorse, disappointment, awe, submission, love, optimism, aggressiveness
foolish and usually extravagant passion or love or admiration
- Automatic behaviors performed in response to specific stimuli.
- Even though psychologists debate whether humans are born with any instincts, they agree that our behavior is also motivated by other biological and psychological factors
a medical instrument that records several physiological processes simultaneously (e.g., pulse rate and blood pressure and respiration and perspiration)
stimulus motives
internal states that prompt inquisitive, stimulation-seeking, and exploratory behavior
needs or wants that drive goal-directed behavior
Humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs.
an emotion experienced in anticipation of some specific pain or danger (usually accompanied by a desire to flee or fight)
eating disorders
disproportionately affect young women, in large part because of a cultural obsession to achieve unrealistic standards of thinness
fat cells
body cells that store fat
- A kind of eating disorder
- Anorexics starve themselves to below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight.
- The vast majority of anorexics are women.
Primary Drives
- Biological needs (e.g., thirst).
- Drive reduction theory states that our behavior is motivated by biological needs.
fatuous (foolish) love
involves passion and commitment, "whirlwind" love/marriage within a few weeks
romantic love example
most couples' relationships; can become consumate love or fizzle out into empty love
yerkes-dodson law
evidences arousal theory; the more complex a task, the lower level of arousal that can be tolerated without interference before the performance deteriorates; ex. used in class-driving to school, driving angry, finding a new location, boiling an egg
arousal theory
theory of motivation; each individual has an optimal level of arousal (alertness, paying attention) that varies from one situation to the next; maintained by desire at that moment; may affect your performance (Yerkes-Dodson Law); Advantages-sensation or thrillseekers
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
display rules
cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions
avoidance motivation
motive or desire to avoid failure
self-actualization stage of hierarchy
fulfillment of individual potential
cannon-bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
Achievement Motivation
- Tries to explain the motivations behind more complex behaviors.
- Examines our desires to master complex tasks and knowledge and to reach personal goals
- Humans (and some other animals) seem to be motivated to figure out our world and master skills, sometimes regardless of the benefits of the skills or knowledge
- Studies in achievement motivation find that some people have high achievement motivation and consistently feel motivated to challenge themselves more than do other people
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Psychologist Abraham Maslow pointed out that not all needs are created equal
- Predicts which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first.
- We will act to satisfy biological needs like survival and safety. Then, we will act to satisfy our emotional needs like love and self-esteem. Finally, once the previous goals have been met, we will want to attain our life goals like satisfaction and self-actualization, a need to fulfill our unique potential as a person
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
instinctive behaviors
behaviors animals are born knowing how to do
james-lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
triangular model of love
sternberg's conceptualization of love relationsips (consumate love = intamacy + passion + commitment
Drive Reduction Theory
- States that our behavior is motivated by biological needs.
- A need is one of our requirements for survival (e.g., food, water, shelter).
- A drive is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need.
- Our body seeks homeostasis, a balanced internal state. When we are out of homeostasis, we have a need that creates a drive.
- Drives can be categorized in two ways: primary drives and secondary drives
Lateral Hypothalamus
- Part of the hypothalamus involved in hunger motivation.
- Stimulating this area causes an animal to eat.
- Destruction of this area destroys hunger, and the animal will starve to death unless forced to eat.
- If the hypothalamus functions normally, this area and the ventromedial hypothalamus oppose each other and signal impulses to eat and stop eating at appropriate times.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
- Occurs when you must choose between two unattractive outcomes
- For example, if your parents gave you a choice one weekend between staying home and cleaning out the garage or going on a family trip to visit some distant relatives, you might experience an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
basic universal emotions
there are six primary emotions and facial expressions that are recognized world wide
physiological stage of hierarchy
hunger, thirst, avoidance of pain, sexual gratification, elimination
safety stage of hierarchy
safe and secure housing, protection from crime and harsh weather
love and belongingness stage of hierarchy
emotional intimacy, friendships, social connections
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
- Exists when one event or goal has both attractive and unattractive features.
- If you were lactose-intolerant, an ice-cream cone would present such a conflict; the taste of the ice cream is appealing but its effect on you are not.
Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation
- Often used to explain addictive behaviors.
- States that people are usually at a normal, or baseline, state. We might perform an act that moves us from the baseline state, such as smoking a cigarette.
- These acts may be initially pleasurable (because nicotine is a stimulant and it makes us feel a good "buzz"), but the theory states that we eventually feel an opponent process, meaning a motivation to return to our baseline, neutral state
- Do not confuse the Opponent Process Theory of Motivation with the Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision
consummate love example
what most couples strive for in their relationships; it's harder to maintain than to achieve; 'fairy tale' love
changing attitude to reduce dissonance
Giving blood isn't that important. They have alot.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
- One of the earliest theories about emotion was put forth by William James and Carl Lange.
- Suggests that we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.
- For example, when the big bad wolf jumps out of the woods Little Red Riding Hood's heart races. This physiological change causes her to feel afraid.
changing behavior to reduce dissonance
giving blood at the next blood drive
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