AP Psychology Test: Behavioral Neuroscience Flashcards

endocrine glands
Terms Definitions
Amygdala
Linked to emotion
Aphasia
Impairment of language
sympathetic
this gland arouses body
Temporal Lobe
Includes auditory areas
dopamine
this NT controls/effects movement, thought processes, rewarding sensations
endorphins
this NT controls/effects positive emotions
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
Dendrite
Receives messages from other cells
Nerves
Neural cables containing many axons
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
acetycholine
depletion of this NT causes alzheimers
Wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Thalamus
Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
reflexes
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
visual cortex
cortex function - receives written words as visual stimulation
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Phrenology
Theory that bumps on the skull reflected our mental abilities and personality traits
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to the emotion.
threshold
what is needed to trigger a neural impulse
positive
charge of the fluid exterior of a resting axon
adrenal
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys; secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress
Sympathetic Nervous System
Arouses the body in stressful situations
Temporal Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which recieves auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
Axon
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Occipital Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which recieve visual information from the opposite visual field
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
behavioral neuroscience
the area of psychology concerned with the relationship between brain activity and psychological functions is called...
handedness
___ runs in families and it is unclear why
forebrain (limbic system)
this part of the brain controls emotion, motivation, learning, and memory
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles (AKA the skeletal nervous system)
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
CT (computed tomography) scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
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