AP Psychology Vocab 15 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Occipital Lobe
Elaborate Rehearsal
keep reviewing
Albert Ellis
rational-emotive therapy, confrontatioal cognitive therapy
This nervous system provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
20 ways to improve memory/learning:
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-reduction: A strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
hypnogogic stage
Hallucinations (non- REM dreams)
Perceptual Constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging
having consistent size, shape,lightness, and color as retinal images change
Spontaneous Recovery
CR reappears after being extinguished
Phillip Zimbardo
social psychology; Stanford Prison Study; college students were randomly assigned to roles of prisoners or guards in a study that looked at who social situations influence behavior; showed that peoples' behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play
term describes the perspective on psychology in which inner feeling and unconscious tensions are emphasized
Describes a cognitive framework for organizing associated concepts, including information and ideas, based on previous experiences.
Cells specialized to recieve and transmit information to ther cells in the body
Variable-Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
loss of self-awareness and restraint resulting from immersion in a group
Panic Disorder
anxiety disorder marked by minutes-long episodes of inense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompany chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
a statistical technique for averaging results across a large number of studies
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 132)
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
Structuralism (Mind's Structure)
Titchener (Wundt's student)-Look inward (introspective) and self-reflection
Wanted to discover the elements of the mind
Albert Ellis's form of therapy for psychological disorders
seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
neurons in the retina that are responsible for color vision
Decay Theory
Asserts that information is forgotten because it gradually disappears over time, rather than because it is displaced by other information.
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Refers to the body's tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state.
The smallest units of language that carry meaning.
cross-sectional research
a method of assessing developmental changes by evaluating different age groups of people at the same time
Dissociative disorders
a class of psychological disorders involving disruptions in the unified sense of self such as loss of memory (for a traumatic event)or the creation of additional identities
primary sex characteristics
the sex organs and genitals
wilhelm wundt
Considered the Father of modern psychology; study of mental processes, introspection, and self-exam; established the first psychology laboratory in Germany STRUCTURALISM
The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters
Defense Mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 180)
substance that binds to a cell's receptors and either mimics or stimulates the action of another substance
the presence of masculine and feminine characteristics in the same person
Psychological Science
Wundt experiment-measured the time lag between a person hearing a ball hit a platform and them pressing a telegraph key
the middle one of a set of numbers
Wernicke's area
located in left temporal lobe; plays role in understanding language and making meaningful sentences
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and interpret their perceptions about the world and themselves
Receptive fields
Areas of the retina that, when stimulated, produce a change in the firing of cells in the visual system.
the part of the personality in Freud's theory that is responsible for making moral choices
feral children
children raised in the wild; children who have no been socialized due to severe isolation
"little brain, attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance; helps us judge time, modulate emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures.
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare."
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
the hollow ball stage of cell division during first two weeks after conception
a tendency to alter one's opinion or behavior in ways that are consistent with the group norms
part of the hindbrain that is nearest to the spinal cord; controls bodily functions (breathing, heart rate and blood pressure); helps transmit messages to upper areas of the brain
incentive theory
Acthe view that motivation stems from the pull or lure of a goal or objective.
The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
information-processing approach
An approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on mental operations, such as attention and memory, that underlie intelligent behavior
Piaget's stage for birth to 2 years; child relates to world through sensory interaction
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
dura mater
a tough membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
Symbolic language
People use spoken sounds and written words to represent objects, actions, events, and ideas. Symbols are arbitrary and have no built in relationship between the look or sound of words and the objects they stand for.
Stage 1 sleep
twilight stage of sleep associated with imagery resembling hallucinations
moral development
growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically
latent learning
a change in behavior due to experience acquired without conscious effort, s, for example, a student using a quote in an exam essay that the student had never tried to memorize, though eh had encountered it in studying
Levels-of processing theory
The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in LTM ( more deeply processed) will be remembered better
frequency hearing theory
The frequency theory of hearing holds that the frequency with which the basilar membrane is vibrated tells us what particular sound we hear
rooting reflex
in response to contact on the cheek, an infant's tendency to turn toward the stimulus and open its mouth
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
The retina contains red, green, and blue sensitive color receptors that in combination can produce the perception of any color. This theory explains the first stage of color processing.
Three aspects of intelligene proposd by Strenberg
creative, analytic, and practical
top-down processing
a progression from the whole to the elements
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 212)
Semantic Encoding
Emphasizes the meaning of a word (Deep Processing)
positron emission tomography (PET)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
rational-emotive-behavior therapy (REBT)
a form of cognitive therapy in which people are confronted with their irrational, maladaptive beliefs
Unconscious Wish Fulfillment Theory
(Freud) is a dream theory that states that sexual (eros) and aggressive (thanatos) instincts motivate behavior; repressed urges and wishes surface in dreams
Concrete Operational Stage
Lasting from about ages 6 or 7 to 11, children can think logically about concrete events and objects.
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