AP Psychology Vocab 22 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
zygote
a fertillized egg
Genital (Puberty-on)
Mature sexual relationships
Smell
olfactory receptors
olfactory neurons bypass the thalamus because it is an "old and primitive" sense
a woman's smelling ability tends to be better than a male's
declines with age
"hotline" runs between the brain area receiving information from the nose and the limbic centers associated with memory and emotion
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Serotonin
neurotransmitter that affects sleep, arousal, mood, appetite; lack of it is linked with depression
ions
Electrically charged particles found both inside and outside the neuron
educational/school
improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training, and other aspects of the educational process.
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
catharsis
release of aggressive energy through activity or fantasy
schema
a conceptual framework that organizes information and allows a person to make sense of the world
Resistance
In psychoanalysis, an unwillingness to cooperate, which a patient signals by showing a reluctance to provide the therapist with information or to help the therapist understand or interpret a situation.
random
term that describes assignment in which all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to the control group or to the experimental group
shaping
molding responses gradually in a step-by-step fashion to a desired pattern
Experimental Method
A carefully controlled scientific procedure involving the manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect. The experimental method enables researchers to determine cause-and-effect relationships.
Projection
The unconscious attribution of one's own unacceptable feelings, attitudes, or desire to others.
learning
a relatively permanent change in knowledge of behavior that results from experience
Aerobic exercise
Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
divided consciousness
not paying attention at all
Superego
personality structure : strive for perfection; future aspirations
Personality test
Measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes
fixed ratio
describes a schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker is paid for a certain sum for each product produced
Rational-emotive therapy
A cognitive behavior therapy that emphasizes the importance of logical, rational thought processes.
axon terminal
terminal button, synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters
just world
phenomenon that describes the belief that what happens to people is what they deserve
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing senosry input and coordinated movement output and balance
John Watson
conditioned Little Albert to fear rats
Memory
Any system, human, animal, or machine that encodes stores and retrieves information
Hippocampus
A curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories.
fovea
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
standardization
the procedure by which existing norms are used to interpret an individual's test score
oedipus complex
In psychoanalysis, a tendency for young children to become sexually attracted to the parent of the opposite sex and hostile to the parent of the same sex
Perceptual Constancy
The perception that objects have consistent lightness, color, shape, and size, even as illumination and retinal images change.
Cochlea
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
Misinformation Effect
Possible memory distortion due to suggestions made during retention interval
correlation
the degree of relationship between two variables
excitatory PSP
positive voltage shift that invades the likelihood that the post synaptic neuron woll fire action potentials
Panic disorder
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly.
Glands
Body organs or structures that produce secretions.
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
childhood disorders
disorders diagnosed in infancy, at birth, in childhood
representativeness heuristic
this cognitive short cut enables one to generalization based on how closely a stimulus matches a typical member of a class; given a picture of a man in a tweed jacket with a textbook, is this man a professor or a truck driver?
music backwards
when music is played backwards and sounds make noises to sound like other words, this is an example of subliminal messages.
frequency polygon
graph of a frequency distribution that shows the number of instances of obtained scores, usually with the data points connect by straight lines
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
Action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Explicit memory
Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
Gestalt Psychology
A historical school of psychology that sought to understand how the brain works by studying perception and perceptual learning
latent dream content
The underlying meaning of a dream.
Bystander Effect
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
placebo effect
the curative effect of an inactive treatment that results simply from the patient's belief in its therapeutic value
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
morphemes
the smallest units of meaning in a language
Vestibular Sense
A sense of equilibrium, or balance, and position of the body as a whole
Tardive dyskensia
the most serious side effect from taking antipsychotic drugs; potentially disabling damage to the nervous system particularly that function directing motor activity
amygdala [uh-MIG-duh-la]
two lima bean sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 072)
sensory memory
the storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a very short time
the branch of psychology that helps people cope with challenges in their daily lives.
Counseling psychology
Corpus Callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Information Processing
a dream theory that states that dreams occur s the brain deals with daily stress and events, dreams help sift, sort and fix the day's experience into our memory.
Split-brain surgery
A procedure in which the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.
*Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Flat Affect
a negative symptom in which the person shows little or no emotion, speaks without emotional inflection, and maintains an immobile facial expression
opponent process theory
the theory that color vision is derived from three pairs of opposing receptors. The opponent colors are blue and yellow, red and green, and black and white.
Attribution Theory
#2, Pg. 696, chpt. 18.
The theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Regression Toward the Mean
tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
Conversion disorder
a condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation.
Culture-bound disorders
Abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups.
place theory
theory of how the perception of pitch of sound depends on the level or part of the basilar membrane of the cochlea which is set into vibration by the sound waves
Informational Social Influence
we listen to others, groups may provide valuable information
Achievement Tests
- Measure how much you have learned in a given subject area.
- Different than aptitude tests, which measure ability or potential.
- Most of the tests you take in school are supposed to be achievement tests. They are supposed to indicate how much you have learned in a given subject area.
- Making a test that exclusively measures achievement is virtually impossible. Whatever one's aptitude for a particular field or skill, one's experience affects it.
Self Serving Bias
putting ourselves in the best light by taking credit for our accomplishments and making situational explanations for what we have not done well
basilar membrane
in the inner ear, vibration of this is what allows us to perceive differences in pitch, particularly with higher pitched sounds
Piaget's sensorimotor stage
the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age), during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
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