AP Psychology: Memory 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Amnesia
loss of memory
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Suggestibility
The lingering effects of misattribution.
Chunking
Organizing items into familiar manageable units.
Automatic processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information.
implicit
Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates what kind of memory?
Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images
Overconfidence
A tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgements.
Memory Codes
Mental representation of physical stimuli.
Priming
is the activation, often unconscious, of a web of associations in memory in order to retrieve a specific memory.
Imagery
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Proactive interference
Can't remember new girlfriends name because of so many old ones
flashbulb
Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates what kind of memory?
emotional memory
learned emotional responses to various stimuli (ex. disgust when you see a rat)
Insight
A sudden realization of the solution to a problem (Aha!)
Transfer-Appropriate Model
Memory performance is determined by how it is initially encoded and how it is later retrieved.
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Imagination Inflation
Adding of sensory detail increases chance of a false memory
Iconic memory
is the visual sensory memory consisting of a perfect photographic memory, which lasts no more than a few tenths of a second.
semantic memory
type of explicit memory; memory that includes facts and concepts: like Encyclopedia; school knowledge
Source Amnesia
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Episodic memory
Memory of one's life, including time of occurance
forgetting
distortion
In considering the 7 sins of memory, transience is to the sin of
as suggestibility is to the sin of .
acousting encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Echoic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
situational factors
recall of information is better if enviroment is the same as when information was learned
Retroactive Interference
Occurs when new information makes it harder to recall something we learned earlier.
Korsakoff's Syndrome
A disorder that usually occurs in chronic alcoholic, the subject is unable to form new episodic memories but retain some implicit memories Ex: This was on a recent episode of House, where the patient couldn't remember what happened to her but would instead, take in her surrounding to make up memories, sort of like lying but she doesn't know it, and would forget about the fake memory in moments.
Encoding failure
Information never made it from short term to long term memory
Long Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
retrieval failure
While taking the final exam in her American history class, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty illustrates:
elaborative rehearsal
linking of new information in STM to familiar material stored in LTM
Semantic Network Theory
All the concepts the subject has learned are represented in a dense network of association. (If needed, search up "spreading activation".)
Hippocampus
A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
skill memory; fact memory
Implicit memory is to explicit memory as
is to .
Confirmation Bias
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has worked in the past.
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
is an increase in a synapse's firing potential following brief, rapid stimulation. LTP is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory.
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