AP Psychology: Personality Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The desire to achieve.
When measures are accurate.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
Not accepting the ego-threatening truth.
People's emotional style and characteristic way of dealing with the world.
researcher associated with G factor
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites; thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
Factor analysis
A statistical technique allowing researchers to use correlations between traits to see which traits cluster together as factors.
Channeling one's frustration toward a different goal.
Analytical intelligence
ability to judge, reason, critique
attributes events to oneself or environment
Reciprocal Determinism
- Albert Bandura suggested that personality is created by an interaction between the person (traits), the environment, and the person's behavior.
- Each of these three factors influences the other two in a constant reciprocal loop.
- For a specific characteristic, the percentage of variation between people that can be attributed to genetic factors.
- For example, if a trait is highly heritable (e.g., height), much of the variation between a group fo people on that trait is determined by genes.
- Heritability can range from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates that the environment is totally responsible for differences in the trait and 1 means that all of the variation in the trait can be accounted for genetically.
the part of the personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides the standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories; according to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Carl Jung
Proposed that the unconscious consists of the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious.
Albert Bandura
Suggested that personality is created by an interaction between the person, the environment, and the person's behavior.
Internal locus of control
own skills effect outcome
measures degree to which possess five traits.
Split-half reliability
examine correlation between items on one half of test and items on other half.
- One of the components of Freud's Psychoanalytic Personality Theory.
- Freud theorized that personality consists of three parts: id, ego, and superego.
- The ego follows the reality principle; it negotiates between the desires of the id and the limitations of the environment, acting as a mediator between the two.
Social-Cognitive Personality Theories
- Combine behaviorists' emphasis on the importance of the environment with cognitive psychologists' focus on patterns of thought.
- Example: Albert Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism.
Somatotype Personality Theory
- William Sheldon identified three body types: endomorphs (fat), mesomorphs (muscular), and ectomorphs (thin).
- Sheldon argued that certain personality traits were associated with each of the body types.
1. Endomorphs were friendly and outgoing.
2. Mesomorphs were confident and assertive.
3. Ectomorphs were shy and secretive.
4. Sheldon's findings have not been replicated, and his methodology has been questioned.
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Cardinal traits
People may be so profoundly influenced by one trait that it plays a huge role in virtually everything they do.
Oral stage
Birth to one year. Children enjoy sucking and biting because it gives them a form of sexual pleasure.
Personal construct theory
People develop their own individual systems of personal constructs. Proposed by George Kelly.
Barnum effect
People have the tendency to see themselves in vague, stock descriptions of personality.
Content validity
capability of test to be fully presentative of the construct it is intended to measure.
Oedipus Crisis
- A crisis Freud thought that boys went through during the phallic stage of his psychosexual stage theory of personality.
- Boys sexual desire for their mothers and the view of their fathers as rivals for their mother's' love, occurs in this stage.
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests; originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
Adult genital stage
Puberty. People remain in this stage for the rest of their lives and seek sexual pleasure through sexual relationships with others.
Predictive validity
capability of a test to predict future performance.
Big Five Personality Traits
- A number of contemporary trait theorists believe that personality can be described using these five personality characteristics:
1. Agreeableness - How easy to get along with someone is.
2. Conscientiousness - How hardworking, responsible, and organized one is.
3. Openness - How creative, curious, and willing to try new things one is.
4. Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) - How consistent one's mood is.
5. Extraversion - How outgoing and sociable someone is.
Type A
These people tend to feel a sense of time pressure and are easily angered. Competitive, ambitious; work hard and play hard.
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory)
identifies presence and absence of various psychological disorders.
empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
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