AP Psychology: Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sigmund Freud
an opaque lens.
Studied children's intelligence; Cognitive perspective
Neurotransmitter: Excitatory: controsl muscle crontraction; involved in memory formation (in hippocampus)
sleep stage associated with dreaming
Soloman Ash
Conducted the line experiment
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Non-reproductive sexual characteristics such as breasts, hips, male voice quality and body hair.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
episodic memory
personal memories of experiences
through evolution, animals are biologically predisposed to easily learn behaviors related to their survival as a species
investigator manipulates factors to observe effect
Practice of placing children with special needs in regular classroom settings, with the support of professionals who provide special education services
Top-Down Processing
information processin guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experiance and expectations
Pituitary Glands
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Vomerosonasal organ
Pheromones (hormones that travel through air)
Behavioral Approach
suggest that observable, miserable, behavior should be the focus
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors presented by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
chemical messengers that are released across the synapse where they bind with receptors on dendrites
Lawrence Kohlberg
moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Inner Ear
contains the cochlea, semicircular canals
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 081)
unconditional response
response from the unconditional stimulus
quality of sound, to differentiate from different sources.
a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency
Kinesthetic System
positions of various body parts
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area.
receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well- lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
the transparent outer covering of the eye
long-term memory
storage mechanism that keeps a relatively permanent record of memory
Normal Curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that descries the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal (2) expressive behaviors and (3) conscious experience
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Semantic Networks
more irregular and distorted systems than strict hierarchies -- multiple links from one concept to another -- fat - dog - fur - bear etc -- how we move from topic to topic that seem unrelated
Carl Jung
Neo-Freudian; placed less emphasis as social factors and unconscious beacame his focus
unconditioned stimulus
in conditioning it elicits the UCR
Conditioned Response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus (CS)
the behavior (such as future college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.)
Withdrawal Symptoms
The Reaction experienced when a substance abuser stops using a drug with dependence properties
____________ is the process by which the lens of the eye changes shape to focus near objects on the retina, (p. 145)
mental pictures, a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills. tends to increase with age
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
when positively charged ions flood an axon, firing the neuron.
Group polarization
Exaggeration of our initial attitudes when a judgment or decision of a group is more extreme than what individual members of the group would have reached on their own.
Stimulus Discrimination
when the conditioned response becomes less prone to activate to the new stimulus because of the increasing differences between them.
"mind over matter" ie levitating a table or influencing the roll of a die
The meaningful product of perception - often an image that has been associated with concepts, memories of events, emotions, and motives.
in language the set of rules that describe how words are arranged to make sentences
Statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Motor Neurons
Carry information away from the spinal cord and the brain and toward the body parts that are supposed to respond to the information in some way.
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
the tendency of systems to maintain a steady, internally balanced state
Anorexia Nervosa
starving ones self and having an unrealistic body image, under 85% normal body weight
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
a generalized belief about a group of people.
we tend to believe an idea if authority endorses it.
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
Gender identity
One's sense of being male or female
Oedipus complex
According to Freud, boys in the phallic stage develop a collection of feelings, known as the _________, that center on sexual attrac­tion to the mother and resentment of the father. Some psychologists believe girls have a parallel Electra complex, (p. 424)
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
a complex pattern of behavior that is fixed across a species
Masters and Johnson
observed muscle contractions all over the body during organsm; these were accompanied by futher increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
having serious problems with other people and show eccentric or bizarre behavior. they are susceptible to illusions, magical thinking, and believing in supernatural.
Motor (Efferent) Neurons
Neurons sends info from Central nervous system to the muscles
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying msgs between them
the inability to see a problem solving strategies that have worked in the past
Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
The notion that the brain creates dreams to help make sense of random electrical brain activity during sleep.
Action Potential
A neutral impulse. Generated by the movement of positively charged sodium ions into the axon.
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
binocular cues
depth cues that are based on two eyes
Erogenous zone
An area of the body which, when stimulated, gives rise to sexual feeling
color constancy
the tendency to perceive an object as having the same color despite changes in lighting conditions
Goal of the Ego
Mediate between id, superego, and reality; postpone pleasure until a safe object is found (reality principle)
glial cell
this acts as a support system for neurons
eyes: cones/rods
Rods: detect black, can respond in dim light
Cones: detect sharp details and colors
ex. less cones than rods
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Stage of sleep characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude brain-wave activity, rapid and systematic eye movements, more vivid dreams, and postural muscle paralysis
longitudinal research
a research design in which the same group of participants is tested or observed repeatedly over a period of time
Serial position function
The serial position effect occurs due to three factors: distinctiveness, constraints of short-term memory, and inhibition. First, the primacy and recency effects occur because items at the beginning and the end of the list are distinct or isolated from the other stimuli due to their positions. Second, short-term memory involves keeping some information in active, working memory; this information is likely to be the most recently presented stimuli. Third, inhibition hampers memory.
Double Blind Study
Research method in which both the subjects and the experimenter are unaware or 'blind' to the anticipated results.
clinical/ counseling psychologist
seek to asses, understand, and change abnormal behavior
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
A person who has a medical degree and specializes in the treatment of mental disorders.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
One stimulus with another stimulus
What you associate in classical conditioning (Pavlov, Watson)
PET (positron emission tomography)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
What is a critical period?
a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
Major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities.
In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
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