AP Stat Definitions Flashcards

Probability theory
Terms Definitions
A population measure
stratified sampling
slice of population
random assignment of experimental units to treatments or of treatments to trials, the best defense against bias.
standard deviation and IQR
Measures of spread.
Number of times each outcome occured
Used adjacent bars to show distribution of quantitative variable
principals of experimental design
control, randomize, replicate
a characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values from a sample
plots explanatory vs. response for bivariate data of quantitative variables only!! We can add a categorical component by changing symbols or colors...
Individual chosen for the sample can not be contacted or does not cooperate
Y intercept
the value of y when x=0
cluster sampling
dividing a population into subgroups (clusters) and forming a sample by randomly selecting clusters and including all individuals or objects in the selected clusters in the sample
Any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its population
sampling frame
the individuals or clusters of individuals who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample
If a histrogram of a certain distribution has both the right and left sides approximately equal.
multistage sampling
sampling schemes that combine several different sampling methods at different stages
The value that a specified percent of the observations fall below.
Some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample.
the correlation always falls between these two numbers
-1 and +1
Bernoulli Trials
Have 2 outcomes, probability of a success is constant, trials are independent
statistical inference 1
provide an alternative method for producing data in such circumstances
quantitative graphs
histograms, dot plots, stem and leaf plots, box plots
a point that lies outside the overall pattern of the data
uniform distribution
a distribution whose shape is evenly distributed throughout the values it takes
The Three Principles of Experimental Design
Conrtol, Randomization, Replication
Placebo effect
Patients' response may be because of a dummy treatment. Many patients respond favorably to any treatment. Due to trust to doctor and expectation of a cure.
trimmed mean
a measure of center in which the observations are first ordered from smallest to largest, then one or more observations are deleted from each end, and finally the remaining observations are averaged; in terms of sensitivity to outliers, the trimmed mean is a composite between the mean and the median
Systematic Sample
A sample drawn by taking every n^th person
Outcome variable
a variable which is studied in order to see if it has change significantly due to the manipulation of the explanatory variable
A variable is lurking if it drives two other variables
Chebyshev's Rule
for any number k >_ 1, at least 100(1-1/k squared)% of the observations in any data set are within k standard deviations of the mean; the percentage value is typically conservative in that the actual percentages often considerably exceed the stated lower bound
least squares regression line
The least-squares regression line of y on x is the line that makes the sum of the squares of the vertical distances of the data points from the line as small as possible.
sample space
a list of all possible outcomes of a random variable
Simple Random Sample (SRS)
A simple random sample of size n consits of n individual units or individuals chosen in such a way that all possible sets of size n have an equal chance of being chosen.
law of Large Numbers
in the long run, the results of the repeated trials of a random event will appraoch the theoretical probability that we expect for the event
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