AP Statistics 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bimodal
distributions with two modes
comparing distributions
use back-to-back stem, or histogram/dot with same scale and compare their shape, center, and spread
sample
a representative subset of a population, examined in hope of learning about the population
level
the experimental values that are chosen for each factor
distribution
describes how a quantitative variable behaves. Generally include shape, center, spread, & unusual features.
undercoverage
some portion of the intended population is either unrepresented or under-represented
range
the maximum data value minus the minimum data value
histogram
a display for quantitative data that uses adjacent bars to represent counts or percentages of values falling in each interval
principles of experimental design
control, randomize, replicate, block
outliers
values that fall outside the overall pattern of the data
multistage sampling
sampling schemes that combine several different sampling methods at different stages
sample statistics
mathematical measures taken from a sample of the population of interest like the sample mean and sample standard deviation
variance
the standard deviation squared, it is a measure of spread
Confidence Interval
Used to estimate the population parameter; an interval within which we believe lays the TRUE population parameter.
bar chart
a display for categorical data that uses bar height to represent counts or percentages for each category
frequency table
lists the categories for a categorical variable and displays the counts for each category
statistic
a number that describes the data; it can be a measure of center or spread
5 number summary
includes the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, & the maximum
response bias
anything in the survey design that influences the responses from the sample
P-value
The chance of getting the results if the null hypothesis is true.
cluster sample
population is split into parts or clusters usually based on geography and then entire clusters are selected randomly and sampled
Theoretical Probability
The proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long series of repetitions (determined mathematically).
placebo
a fake treatment often given to the control group to help prevent the placebo effect (subjects improving by the power of suggestion)
simple random sample
abbreviated SRS, this requires that every item in the population has an equal chance to be chosen and that every possible combination of items has an equal chance to exist. No grouping can be involved.
stratified random sample
population is divided into homogenous groups and then a random sample is drawn from each group
nonresponse bias
bias created when people who are randomly selected refuse to particiapte in the sample
quantitative variable
where the data collected is numerical and it makes sense to use it for numerical operations
measures of center
mean for distributions that are symmetric, median for all other distribution shapes
modified boxplot
a display for quantitative data that graphs the five-number summary on an axis and shows outliers of they exist
Interquartile Range (IQR)
the third quartile minus the first quartile
dotplot
a display for either kind of data that uses a dot to represent each individual in the data set
double blind
when the subjects as well as those evaluating the result of an experiment do not know which subjects are in the treatment or control groups
single blind
when the subjects in an experiment do not know if they are in the treatment or control group
Probability Model
a list of all possible outcomes and the probability of each
Central Limit Theorem
The sampling distribution of a large sample will be approximately normal even if the population is not normal.
Statistically significant
When the p-value is lowp; not likely to happen by chance is the null hupothesis is true.
Empirical Probability
The number of times an outcome occurs in a set of trials that are actually performed (used as an estimate of the theoretical probability).
median
the value in the center of an ordered data set
relative frequency table
lists the categories for a categorical variable and displays the percenatges for each category
outlier formula
less than Q1 - 1.5 (IQR)
more than Q3 + 1.5 (IQR)
Sample Space
a list of all possible outcomes of a random phenomenon S= {...........}
first quartile
the value where 25 % of the data fall below it in an ordered list
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