AP US History 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A trade town
becoming like another group
Mayan Culture
- - -
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
Chinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws
enduring a very short time
Malcolm X
leader of Nation of Islam
Alexander Kerensky
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom.
testimonials by individuals that they had received God's grace and therefore deserved to be admitted to the church as members of the elect
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
A powerful city-state formed around the 14th century; was not relatively influence by the Europeans despite coming into contact with the Portuguese'; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century
Daniel Ellsberg
former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910. (735)
26th President of the United States
Privately owned ships which were allowed to go out and fight the British
Conscious Whigs
Group heavily influenced by the abolitionist crusade, who condemned slavery on moral grounds. They wanted to end slavery not for the well being of African Americans but for the new job opportunities for other Americans.
class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries.
Benito Mussolini
Italian fascists leader after World War I; created first fascist government (1922-1943) based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories
1189. Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
Jacob Leisler
German-born American who hated James II's policies and rebelled in the southern part of New York.
Jefferson Administration
Jefferson didn't like Constitution, or National Bank. Stopped funding Navy. Dominated by Embargo Act. Secretary of State was Madison.
Alexander II
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs
imperial bureaucracy
system to run centralized gov't, comprised of educated scholar-gentry
a major Hindu god called The Preserver.
Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part
Umayyad Caliphate
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate. (p. 232)
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Northwest Passage
believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth
a characteristic of an owner of property; constituting property
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
A Persian scholar/polymath of the 11th century; studied math and astronomy
secular spirit or tendency, esp. a system of political or social philosophy that rejects all forms of religious faith and worship.
Jay's Treaty
(1795)- treaty that John Jay wrote between American and GB - why? American was getting drawn into French/ British conflict because of trade Issues because of trade with British 1) impressments- stoppage of American merchant ships and taking of genuine American citizens as deserters of British Navy and made them serve on British naval ships 2) British had not evacuated forts in Great Lakes area - GW sends John Jay to make a treaty with Great Britain to work out issue and brings back treaty Federalists - support it b/c they have an affinity towards England Republicans -hate it and believe it a huge betrayal of the allegiance they have with France and believe Britain=enemy -openly criticize Washington - treaty eventually passes, but is a very divided vote
the practice of owning slaves; the act of using other human beings forcibly to perform menial or otherwise backbreaking work
Middle Passage
The part of the Atlantic Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas
What West African power had a series of powerful kings, strong cavalry, and a control of west Saharan trade?
Independent treasury
Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created this that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation.
Triangular Trade
rum to Africa, slaves to the West-Indies, and sugar to New England
de la Salle
explored Great Lakes and the Mississippi Area
hepburn act of 1906
Proposal for railroad regulation enacted in 1906 that extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and gave it the power to set maximum freight rates.
Suleyman the Magnificent
Ottoman Sultan (1512-20) expansion in Asia and Europe, helped Ottomans become a naval power, challegned Christian vessles througout the Mediterranian. 16th Century. The "lawgiver" who was so culturally aware yet exacted murder on two of his sons and a grandson in order to prevent civil war. Ottoman.
to bring a large quantity of things together over time
Ex: During this time, land-owning nobles grew increasingly resentful of the chruch, which had ammased an enormous amount of power and wealth and exploited a huge number of resources at the expense of the nobles. (C.180)
1919 Strikes
Workers felt in their patriotic duty not to strike during WWI. After the war ended striking resumed at an enormous level and involved millions of workers because employers, freed from wartime control, tried to offset gains made by the unions. The Boston police Strike was put down by the state militia and ended the in the suspension of 19 officers. The Suppression of the strike made Governor Calvin Coolidge a national figure. The steel strike involved 300,000 men and was stopped by federal injunction. The coal strike by the united mine workers began over a pay increase and ended in an injunction and the award of half of the pay increases asked for by the unions.
William Clark
went with Meriwether Lewis to explore lands west of the mississippi
Open Door note
Concept in foreign affairs stating that, in principle, all nations should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights in China
Lincoln Douglas Debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
865. Francis Willard
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
Cold War
The Soviet Union and the U.S. experienced a Cold War from 1946 to 1991. While there was no actualy direct conflict between the nations, they were military enemies and political and technological rivals. both superpowers possessed nuclear weapons, and an arms race was ongoing.
Quebec Act
late 18th century, actually a sensible piece of colonial legislation, gave French Canadians religious freedom and restored French form of civil law. linked by colonists to Intolerable Acts and seen as a sign of Britihs repression
John L. O'Sullivan
He was an American columnist who coined the phrase Manifest destiny to support the annexation of Oregon and Texas. He was an advocate for the democratic party and served on the New York assembly where he attempted to destroy the death penalty and worked hard on establishing a New York public school system. His voice as a columnist helped to get Polk elected as president and sway public opinion for the annexation of Oregon and Texas.
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East. (p. 44)
Huge cemetery in DC that used to be Lee's home, but the gov seized it.
Compromise of 1877
Also known as the "corrupt bargain", it ended radical reconstruction. Rutherford B. Hayes was elected president with the understanding he would remove federal troops supporting republican governments in the South.
ming dynasty
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
British raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government. (p. 659)
Missouri Compromise
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.
Muhammad Ali
the cousin and son in law to Muhammad
Teller Amendment/Platt Amendment
an Amendment adopted by Congress which stated that once US had overthrown the Spanish misrule in Cuba, the Cubans would be given their freedom; the US encouraged Cuba to write and pass the Platt Amendment, which then became Cuba's constitution; Cuba could not impair their independence; US could send troops to restore order and mutual protection; must lease and sell naval and coaling stations
1015. Hepburn Act, 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
Define: Open Bill
amendments may be added to the bill
Convention of 1800
voided alliance with France, but it set up commercial treaty with France
Shah Abbas the great
Modernized military and sought to ally with europeans against the Ottomans
Ablemann v. Booth
1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
Presidential Nominating Conventions
(GF) 1976, James E. Carter and Ronald Reagan
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Passed during the presidency of James Madison. It stated that America could trade with all nations except Britain and France.
John C. Calhoun/Nullification Doctrine
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification. Supposely wrote the Nullification Doctrine.
1920s Presidents were all pro-business Republicans
Warren G. Harding (Calvin CoolidgeHerbert Hoover
Bank of the United State
This was established by Hamilton and opposed by Jefferson as a way to strength the economy and attract investors which lasted for 20 years and had a cap of $10 million. It also created a currency which did not exist in the early American days. The bank was extremely important in strengthening the economy as it created a stock market which boomed immediately. It also established an ever so important currency which fixed many uprising disputes about money.
Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
West Bank
a strip of land on the west side of the Jordan River, originally controlled by Jordan, which is part of the land set aside for Arab Palestinians
248. Beard thesis, his critics
Charles Austin Beard wrote in 1913 that the Constitution was written not to ensure a democratic government for the people, but to protect the economic interests of its writers (most of the men at the Constitutional Convention were very rich), and specifically to benefit wealthy financial speculators who had purchased Revolutionary War government bonds through the creation of a strong national government that could insure the bonds repayment. Beard’s thesis has met with much criticism.
Examine the extent of social and cultural changes that took place in Africa as a result of the introduction of Islam and Christianity.WOMEN IN AFRICA
DEFINITION: Women had more opportunities in Africa. They influenced public affairs & even engaged in combat.SIGNIFICANCE: Islam appearing had little effect on women's roles.
Era of Good Feelings
Refers to the period after the War of 1812 during the presidency of James Monroe, when competition among political parties was at a low ebb
517. Election of 1844: Third party's impact
Third party's impact was significant. James G. Birney drew enough votes away from Clay to give Polk New York, and thus the election.
vast majority of africans bound into slavery were
captured by other africans who traded their victims to european troops
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
Johannes Kepler
Axis and Allies
7. Song Dynasty
960-1279 C.E.
first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
Party of the Industrialized Revolution. The political party in Mexico that dominated in the 20th century.
Ball Courts
characteristic of Mesoamerican culture, used for sport; societies across Americas adopted Mesoamerican ball courts after having contact
French-speaking people in Nova Scotia
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)
Benjamin Franklin
Inventor, Politician and Patriot leader. One of the founding fathers
Implemented by Fredrick W. Taylor, scientific management to reduce waste, was resented by many although he brought concrete improvements of productivity
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. (p. 254)
Original preeminent maritime power of the 15th century
A. Philip Randolph
A prominent twentieth-century African-American civil rights leader and the founder of both the March on Washington Movement and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a landmark for labor and particularly for African-American labor organizing. He was one of several Black atheists involved in the civil rights movement.
People's Party
Another name for Populist Party
an endogamous and hereditary social group limited to persons of the same rank, occupation, economic position, etc., and having mores distinguishing it from other such groups.
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
Leader of the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World); convicted under Espionage Act of 1917
The price for which America purchased the Philippines from Spain, in millions of dollars (Arabic numerals).
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
utopian socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively (616
The Wimot Proviso if adopted would have...
a. Prevented the taking of any territory from Mexico
b. Required California to enter the Union as a slave state
c. Overturned the Fugitive Slave trade
d. Prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexica
Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
Albert Camus
(1913-1960) was the leading French existentialist; he became extremely influential, and joined the French resistance. Him and Sartre offered powerful answers to moral issues and the contemporary crisis.
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster; cosmic struggle over good and bad; influenced by Judaism and Christianity
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
fascist party
Italian political party created by benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
The condition of being under the guardianship of another.
Sit-Down Strike
a method developed by auto-workers, sit down strikes would prevent the strikebreakers from doing their jobs and due to the success of the auto workers with GM it became a popular form of strike 7: 1934-1941
William Gorgas
his efforts ELIMINATED the mosquitoes the spread deadly yellow fever. (burning lakes, nets)
President Taft's foreign policy was dubbed
dollar diplomacy
Massachusetts writer of children's literature; published "A Century of Dishonor"
Helen Hunt Jackson
Cyrus field
The greatest wire puller in history. It stretched a cable under deep North Atlantic waters to Ireland. Promotes shipping and transportation transportation revolution.
Freedom Riders*
(LBJ) Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
jacques cartier
discovers the saint lawrence river in canada from france
1025. Mark Hanna (1839-1904)
Prominent Republican senator and businessman, he was Republican campaign manager.
Confederate Advantages
South thought that if North blocked foreign trade, Britain would force open ports + help defend
Knew that Northern manufacturers needed Southern markets
More support for effort, as war was fought on own land
Strong leaders
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Mexico acknowledged the annexation of Texas and ceded New Mexico and California to the US. In return the US paid 15 million of the Mexican Cession and assumed up to 3.25 million in disputed claims.
Geroge Walker Bush
(gwb) 2001-2009, "stay the course", conservative
In 1295 the Il-Khan Gizan converted to what religion?
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople
the capital of the Song Dynasty that was threatened by the Qidan in the 900s
Rashid al-Din
Adviser to the Il-khan ruler Ghazan, who converted to Islam on Rashid's advice. (p. 334)
Bolívar, Simón
The most importan military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
Hamilton's Bank Bill
Hamilton believed that a stable government required an enlightened ruling class. His idea included the government assuming the public debt. He also called for a National bank,w hich woudl keep bond prices high, and allow the government to pay off bonds at par. Two new taxes were also included, Whiskey tax and tariffon imports Such was the first measure to protect the infant American Manufacturing industry trom foriegn competion
Dayton Accords
fragile peace agreement that created 6 (today there are 8) independent countries out of Yugoslavia
Stamp Act
taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
liberty loan drives
..., Treasury Dept bond-selling drives that raised about $21 billion to finance the American war effort
Henry the 8th
led the Prtestant Reformation in England and formed the Anglican Church in England
The people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. Made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
To finish equipping a vessel at a dock.
Declaratory Act
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull.
Fort Sumter
Where start of the civil war took place. Was still federal property and controlled by U.S. military forces.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
British formally recognized the U.S. independence and the granted generous boundaries, streaching majestically to the Mississippi River to the west, the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the South. The Yankees also retained a share in the priceless fisheries of Newfoundland. americans couldn't persecute Loyalists, though, and Congress could only recommend legislature that would return or pay for confiscated Loyalist land.
Congress of Vienna
The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.
Bloody Sunday
a peaceful march in 1905 to encourage the Czar to enact reforms of the kind advocated by the European Enlightenment that turned violent when the Czar felt threatened and ordered his guards to fire on the protesters; hundreds dead
Orders in Council
Britain blockaded the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Cattle Frontier
raised cows cheaply in Texas and sold them at higher prices in other areas; great profit but at the mercy of unstable markets; harsh climate and overgrazing pushed many to bankruptcy; ranch wars between farmers and open-grazing ranchers
louis brandeis
..., A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.
"key to unlock the door of the Great Society"
The Dixicrats
A group of people from 15 southern states that were embittered by Truman's nomination and nominated J. Strom Thurmond on a states' Rights Party ticket.
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family. (p. 493)
731. Morgan bond transaction
John Pierpont Morgan took over the Susquehanna and Albany railroads. He won the confidence of European investors and used them for investment capital. He then took over steel companies and bought Carnegie's interests in steel. This was the largest personal financial transaction in U.S. history. Morgan combined the companies to form the U.S. Steel Company, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Eased the Panic of 1873.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
written by Thomas Jefferson, enforced the separation of church and state in Virginia
Dayton Accord
On Nov. 21, 1995, after 21 days of intensive negotiations at an anything-but-luxurious American Air Force base in Dayton, Ohio, the three Bosnian leaders initialed a peace agreement and 11 annexes, known as the Dayton accords, to try to bring an end to nearly four years of terror and killing in the former Yugoslavia. About 250,000 people died and another 2.7 million were turned into refugees.
In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia
Indian Ocean Maritime System
the Korean war
The U.N. and U.S. forces joined to defend South Korea. General MacArthur's Inchon invasion turned the war in our favor, but as we neared their border the Chinese sent human wave attacks against our troops. After a long stalemate the 38th parallel was established as a boundary.
1184. Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.
Sir Edmund Andros
He was the first royal governor of the Dominion of New England (1686-1688). A former soldier, Andros was efficient and loyal to the crown, but tactless when facing resentment in Massachusetts over taxation. Andros suppressed town governments and enforced trade laws. He also took over one of the Puritan churches. After the Glorious Revolution, Andros was arrested and Massachusetts was returned to its former governor.
1417. "Separate but Equal"
In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal facilities for Blacks and Whites were legal.
Umayyad Dynasty
In 711 the N Indian area of Sind fell to what group?
Causes of the Great Depression
A deflation in asset and commodity prices, dramatic drops in demand and credit, and disruption of trade, ultimately resulting in widespread unemployment and hence poverty. However, historians lack consensus in describing the causal relationship between various events and the role of government economic policy in causing or ameliorating the Depression.

Judiciary Act of 1801
reduced the size of the Supreme Court from six justices to five and eliminated the justices' circuit duties
366. Treaty negotiators: John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay
These three were among the American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.
Indian Political influence in SE Asia
Adopted kingship as the principle form of political authority
1148. Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
What wast he cause of Arab-Israeli conflict?
During hte Holocaust, Jews who escaped Nazi persecution went to British controlled Palestine agaisnt Arab wishes, who feared that the Jews would claim the land for themselves. In 1947, the U.N. voted to partititon the land into two distinct states. When the Zionists declared the new state of Israel in May 1948, Arab leaders and their armies in surrounding countries declared war.
The original reason for the rise of the kingdom of Ghana was the middleman role it played in the gold trade between
its neighbors who produced it and the Moroccans who distributed it to the Mediterranean world.
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