AP US History 19 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Last Qing ruler
Non-Arab converts to Islam
causing repugnance or aversion:
Found in societies without sophisticated machine technology, where human and animal labor form the basis for economic production (no city moved past this stage until the Industrial Revolution).
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
Large agricultural estate controlled by lords & deputies; self- sufficient communities
Affluent Society
economic prosperity of American society following WWII, doubling of national income, jobs to women, defense industry's support of economy
john winthrop
massachusets bay colony- started by
Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern Asia and other regions
As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a reputation as
A) a supporter of the planter aristocrats.
B) an opponent of slavery.
C) an inspiring and calmly eloquent speaker.
D) a champion of the poor whites.
E) a secret Confederate sympathizer.
The process of discrediting and eliminating the political policies, methods, and personal image of Joseph Stalin.
Distribution Act
1836, Congress distributed the governments surplus to the states each year in four quarterly installments, as interest-free, unsecured loans. No one expected the loans to be paid back.
a decisive battle during the Napoleonic campaigns (1805)
Simone De Beauvoir and Betty Freidan
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in New World; animals, plants and diseases were transferred
Columbian Exchange
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
No violence for the resolution of conflict
Charles Cornwallis
British general in the Revolutionary war, was defeated at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.
Yitzhak Rabin
Prime Minister of Israel during Clinton's administration; assassinated by Israeli extemists
safety valve
Anything, such as the American frontier, that allegedly serves as a necessary outlet for built up pressure, energy, and so on.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac leads Ottowa Indians against Amherst over settling in the Great Lakes/Ohio area.
year facist regime takes control of italy
Reign period of Zhu Di (1360-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Golden Horde
Mongol Khanate based in southern Russia founded by Batu; ruled through taking of tribute rather than bureaucracy as the other Khanates were
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain. (p. 437)
aroostook war
clash over the Maine-Canada boundary where a road was proposed to connect Halifax and Quebec
Stone Age
The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. It was followed in some places by the Bronze Age and more generally by the Iron Age. (p. 11)
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule. (p. 298)
russia became
the main threat for ottoman survival
295. 12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa
El Mina
to bring reproach or discredit upon; lower the estimation of:
Germany sank two gunboats on the coast of this country, and bombarded a town in order to encourage the payment of debts. This alarmed Americans and led to Roosevelt's policy of "preventive intervention."
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
New Divinity
system of Christian theology which was very prominent in New England in the later 18th century. Its roots are embedded in the published and unpublished writings of Jonathan Edwards; hence it has also been call the "Edwardean Divinity." Its modifies several tenets of Calvinism, most notably the notion of free will and original sin, the nature of the atonement of Jesus, and his righteousness being imputed to believers.
great awakening
an immense religous revival that swept the protestant world
Colombian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
Force Act
Passed after civil war - protected voting rights of blacks
Highway Act
1956 Congressional action that led to the current interstate highway system, Eisenhower's legacy
Salutary Neglect
period of time where the Navigation Laws were weakly enforced
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. (p. 459)
Secondary Soure
Writings about events that are based on primary sources or on other secondary sources
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Queen Liliuokalani
the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. She inherited the throne from her brother Kalākaua on 29 January 1891. Shortly after ascending the throne, petitions from her people began to be received from the two major political parties of the time, mainly Hui Kala'aina and the National Reform Party.
Annapolis Convention
called all states to Philadelphia tgo revise Articles of Confederation after Shay's Rebellion
184. Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
Agreed that the wealthy, entrusted with society's riches, had to prove themselves morally responsible according to a "Gospel of Wealth"
Gospel of Wealth
Jacob Riis
wrote How The Other Half Lives, about poor
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
75. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants ignored it.
gag rule
a rule of congress not to discuss slavery
Pickney's Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
1. Universiality of suffering, 2. Desire is the cause suffering, 3. Nirvana is the cessation of desire, 4. Follow the Eight Fold Path
Buddha's 4 Noble Truths
Scientific Revolution
period in the 16th and 17th centuries where many thinkers rejected doctrines of the past dealing with the natural world in favor of new scientific ideas.
coureurs de bois
(runners of the woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America. (p. 489)
Atlantic Charter
product of a secret by FDR and Churchill; discussed post war aims and goals; advocated self determination of peoples
george b mcclellan
Union general who fought in peninsular campaign even though he didnt seem ready to fight. also fought in antietam
Ayatollah Khomeini
This Islamist took power and created a strict Shia theocracy where women were forced to wear traditional Islamic clothing and roles.
970. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
The nazi ____against the jews resulted in killing approximately ___million eastern european jewws. Other targeted groups were the mentally disabled, the mentally ill, homosexuals, gypsies, slavs, poles ,and serbians, as well as russian prisoners of war. T
holocaust; six; camps
19. He wrote The Shame of the Cities. He exposed municipal corruption. He was also a muckraker
Lincoln Steffens
war industry board
Board created during World War I to coordinate all facets of industrial and agricultural production, sought to guarantee that not only the United States but also the rest of the Allies would be well supplied
General Valeriano Weyler
A Spanish general who was sent to crush the Cuban revolt. By using "brutal" methods, he caused uproar in the United States, who called for immediate action to help the Cubans.
A. Phillip Randolph
He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war. Also, organizer of the march on washington movement
"No Taxation Without Representation"
the slogan behind which the American revolutionaries banded against the British protesting the taxing of the American people without having a say in the British government that imposed the laws
Persian Wars
A series of wars in the fifth century B.C., in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire. Won at the Battle of Persia
committee of public information
..., Created in 1917 by Woodrow Wilson, headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
Common Sense- January 1776
- January 1776 written by Thomas Paine a) Attacked the monarchy and aristocracy as decadent institutions and urged Americans to unite under a simple republican regime of their own i) Advocated colonial independence
Battle of lake erie
Battle where a Naval force led by Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the British and secured Lake Erie
Carrie Chapman Catt
a leader of a new generation of women who had taken command of the suffrage battle; under her, the suffragists de-emphasized the argument that women desrved the vote as a matter of right, because they were in all respects the equals of men; instead, she stressed the desirability of giving women the vote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in the increasingly public world of the city; women had the special responsibility for the health of the family and the education of the children; they needed a voice on boards of public health, police commissions, and school boards to fulfill these responsibilities in the city; by linking the ballot to a traditional definition of women's role, suffragists made gains in the early 1900s
884. Grandfather clause
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature speaking against the "Tariff of Abominations." It proposed nullification of the tariff to prevent secession.
Richard Henry Lee's Resolution of June,
Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence.
South advantages in Civil WAr
Fighting on home soil (most of the time) for their independence and way of life. They had some really good generals like Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, JEB Stuart, etc. To win, they only had to keep the North out – keep up resistance – like Washington in RW
Second Bank of the United States
It was chartered in 1816; much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
1365. Organization of American States (OAS)
Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American Conference, now consists of 32 nations of Central and South America and the U.S. Settled disputes between its members and discouraged foreign intervention in American disputes.
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