AP US History 79 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rajput
Hindu leaders
federalists
supporters of the constitution
Nativism
anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
Yeomen
free,landowning small farmers, below the gentry in status
seppuku
ritual suicide/disembowelment in Japan (hara-kiri); demonstrating courage and restoring family honor
fundamental articles of new haven
...
rational
agreeable to reason; reasonable; sensible:
cede
give up land to another nation
Gupta
Indian dynasty (320-550 CE) that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty
Vice President Burr
"Self-serving political opportunism". Killed Hamilton in duel.
Simon
Commission In 1927 considered future Indian colonial government responses to nationalist demands; served to unify nationalist politicians on both right and left of independence movement and also to heal rift between Muslims and Hindus.
1054 CE
Date: Schism in Christian Church
steppe
Treeless plains, especially the high, flat expanses of northern Eurasia, which usually have little rain and are covered with coarse grass. They are good lands for nomads and their herds. Good for breeding horses: essential to mongol military. (326)
toltecs
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p.236)
Adams-Oñis Treaty
Adams-Oñis Treaty, agreement defining the western boundary of the United States and providing for the cession of the Floridas to the United States by Spain. Under the terms of the treaty, Spain gave up all claims to both East and West Florida, territory forming the present state of Florida and the southern part of Alabama and Mississippi. The treaty also clearly defined for the first time the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. In effect, Spain transferred to the United States all its claims to the Oregon country. In return, the United States gave up whatever title to Texas it had acquired under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase. 3: 1775-1825
hacienda
large producer/ estate produced food systems
Semitic
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic. (p. 32)
Robert LaFollette
Republican Senator from Wisconsin - ran for president under the Progressive Party - proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations
John Rolfe
father of tobacco to virginia farmers
Khadijah
widow of a wealthy merchant; Muhammad worked for her and later married her
Region
a large indefinite location on the surface of the Earth
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate. (p. 365)
Rutherford B. Hayes
1877-1881, Republican, against Tilden (played role to crush Tweed Ring), ended Reconstruction through election bargain
Cotton
What was the most important crop spread throughout the Islamic world during all the new trade?
Medicare
gov't run health insurance for those 65 +
rich people in boston or philly
international shipping
Mero?
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E. In this period Nubian culture shows more independence from Egypt and the influence of sub-Saharan Africa. (p. 71)
moses
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
shaykh
a leader of a bedouin tribe/ clan
Valley Forge
scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
federalists/democratic repulicans /leaders and supports
fed. hamiltion, adams democratic republicans jefferson and madison
Martin Luther
started the Protestant Reformation by nailing his "95 Thesis" on the door of the Church in Wittenberg, Germany
communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Compromise of 1833
after Nullification Crisis, tariff was reduced
Benedict Arnold
United States general and traitor in the American Revolution
What event convinced Indians to get rid of the British rulers?
Amritsar Massacre
911. Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
Clovis
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
irreconcilables
Term for the Senators who would not agree to joining the League of Nations, and pressured Harding to reject it.
yin and yang
In ancient Chinese belief, the opposing forces that bring balance to nature and life
Implied Powers
Those delegated powers of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the Constitution; those "necessary and proper" to carry out the expressed powers
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Otto Van Bismark
Conservative prime minister of Prussia who is credited with German unification; architect of German unification under Prussian king William I in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes; Fought 3 wars in 1864, 1866, and 1870;
Stamp Act
1765- mandated use of stamps that taxed most paper products
Mesolithic Age
from c. 12,000-8,000 BCE; ability to fashion stone tools & such improved greatly; made better weapons & cutting edges; had increased numbers of log rafts & dug out which improved fishing; increased manufacture of pots & baskets for food storage; domesticated animals; population growth accelerated producing more conflicts & wars;
Atahualpa
Last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish. (p. 438)
20-Negro Law
exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; "rich man's war but a poor man's fight"
writs of assistance
search warrents that allowed br soldiers to search the houses or businesses of colonists/ did not specify the places to be searched or the goods to be seized/ james otis/ eventually led to the 4th amendment
Pinckney's Treaty
1795: Treaty between America and Spain guaranteeing America use of New Orleans and the Mississippi for trade.
South America
has had human inhabitants for more than twelve thousand years.
Chesapeake Affair
The Chesapeake was boarded by the British, who forced the crew to sail on British ships. This is one of the more famous cases of impressment, and led to the War of 1812.
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)
American Temperance Union
(AJ) , 1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drink
Ngo Dinh Diem
The first President of South Vietnam (1955-1963).
Foraker Act
This act established Puerto Rico as an unorganized U.S. territory. Puerto Ricans were not given U.S. citizenship, but the U.S. president appointed the island's governor and governing council.
General Andrew Jackson
Became a national hero after the Battle of New Orleans. Major general of volunteers. After his men beat the Creek Indians in Alabama, he was assigned to defend the Gulf Coast. Later became 7th president after John Quincy Adams.
Sam Adams (-)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
Yahweh
a name for the God of the Old Testament as transliterated from the Hebrew consonants YHVH
British raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government. (p. 659)
Cumberland Road
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
1st Colonial Congress
In PHI, all 13 colonies came, Declaration of Rights bill sent to Britain, Complete boycott of British goods. Inter colonial unity
Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
Salem Witch Trials
Started by rumors and killed 20 people
Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam
Islands (along with the Philippines) given to the US for $20 million from Spain after Treaty of Paris.
Federal Reserve System
(WW) 1913 , independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve System ("Fed") is the central bank of the United States. One of the most powerful agencies in the government, it makes and administers policy for national credit and monetary policies. The Fed supervises and regulates bank functions across the country, thus maintaining a sound and stable banking industry, able to deal with a wide range of domestic and international financial demands
268. Tariff of 1789
Designed to raise revenue for the federal government, resulted in a government surplus.
The Urban Middle Class
A small percentage of the population that consisted of city businessmen, traders, and professionals in the market economy. Their numbers increased through growth and specialization of trade. Middle-class families formed the backbone of the clubs and societies of America.
Polly case, Essex case
These dealt with the impressment of sailors.
Convention of 1818
Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
Who were the Australopithecines?
The first evolved species of hominids that led to the evolution of current day Homo sapiens
90. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
Scotish Irish
A group of Scots who fled to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
1328. Nuremberg trials
19 out of 22 German civil and military leaders were found guilty of "war crimes." 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to life sentences and the rest to five to twenty year sentences.
Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Nations north of the Sahara
What African nations were the first colonies to win independence?
159. Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
899. Battle of Wounded Knee
1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
1254. West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Document from the French Revolution (1789) that was influenced by the American Declaration of Independence and in turn influenced other revolutionary movements
Why did Wilson's Treaty of Versailles not pass through the Senate?
because the republican party was not on board and therefore created far less than two-thirds vote in Congress
What is the theory and application of the Supply-side economics?
1. Theory - get people to save money by giving tax cuts.
2. Application - people spent the money they saved from taxes
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