AP US History 80 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
French philosophe/scientistmathemetician & scientistfigured out how entire solar system workedsun=comprised of gas, one day will go dark and Earth will pull off of its orbit
the study of population
St. Basil of Caesarea
John F. Kennedy
1961-1963, 35th President
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Aztec merchants. Extremely wealthy. Had a huge quantity of material goods etc. But explicitly forbidden to take part in political hierarchy so as not to throw off the balance of power.
understood without being openly expressed; implied:
recitations of revelations received by muhammad; holy book of islam
Dutch learning
European knowledge that reached Tokugawa Japan
Albert B. Fall
Harding's interior secretary, convicted of taking bribes for leases on federal oil reserves
Hideki Japanese general; put down attempted military coup in 1936; interfered with civilian cabinets to block appointment of liberal bureaucrats; helped create increasingly militaristic series of prime ministers after 1936.
An ancient Greek philosophy that became popular amongst many notable Romans. Emphasis on ethics. They considered destructive emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a wise person would repress emotions, especially negative ones and that "virtue is sufficient for happiness." They were also concerned with the conflict between free will and determinism. They were also non-dualists and naturalists.
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. (p. 221)
Babylonian king who introduced the most famous early code of law, involving harsh punishments
"The year of Africa" was in
Chinese school of thought, originating in te Warring States Period with Laozi. Daoism offered and alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Daoists believe that the world is always changing and s devoid of absolute meaning or morality. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from "the path" of nature.
These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year. (pp. 174, 371)
Salutary Neglect
Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce those trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.
Akbar developed
a syncretic religion called "Divine Faith"
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
the belief in government by divine guidance
John Foster Dulles plan to liberate countries under communist control
Midwest Folloding
(WJC) Miss. River overflowed, so Federal Emergency Management Agency work with state and local, gave up levees, cooperated with nature more
Shi Huangdi
Whose policies are closely resemble: strong centralized rule, huge public project, and disarming regional military?
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
the original third party; run by Martin Van Buren
Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259. (p. 292)
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
people who invaded Mesopotamia in 3500 B.C.E., known for irrigation techniques, first written language (Cuneiform), and complex religious concepts (religious monuments- ziggurats)
columbian exchange
trade in western hemisphere in europe
17th Amendment
Provides direct election of senators by the people of a state
"Large state plan"
proposed by Virginia, basing representation on population and money, giving larger states an advantage
New England
Area known for trinkets, blankets, knives, and rum
a state of society without government or law.
War Hawks
republicans who pushed for War of 1812; Clay, Calhoun
Efforts made by government to make up for past wrong-doings
Who did the Bolsheviks plan to lead Russia?
441. Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
The Suffolk Resolves
Boston resolves to fight intolerable acts in 1774, leading to the CC
the former center of the both the ancient Roman Republic and the Roman empire;capital of present-day Italy
The policy that states that a colony only exists for the benefit of the mother country.
Gilbert Stuart (-)
American painter, most famous for painting the portrait of Washington which was copied for the one dollar bill.
The Huns
a nomadic group from Northern Asia powerful during the Han Dynasty
Johnson's impeachment
Andrew Johnson fired someone who was on tenure, only republican, democrats looking for reason to get rid of him. violation of the tenure of office act caused this
Nara period
Chinese influence on Japan was most profound during the
World Bank
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. (p. 834)
Stamp Act
taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations); states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"; the roots of the idea go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of government and are originally spelled out in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
Battle of Monmouth
was an American Revolutionary War battle fought in New Jersey on June 28, 1778, that was a turning point of the American Revolution.
results of hamiltons bank
hamilton prevailed washington accepted his rules
Great Migration
Flood of Puritan immigants from Europe to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1629-42.
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. (p. 836)
Fuel Administration!!!
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Northern Securities Company
In 1906, the Supreme court made headlines by upholding Roosevelt's antitrust suit against this company. The company itself was organized by J. P. Morgan and James. J. Hill. The suit angered Wall Street and big business, but enhanced TR's reputation as a trustbuster.
J.Q. Adams Administration
Era of Good Feelings; focused on internal improvements like industry, agriculture, national universities, government obsevatories; Events: party discipline breaks down,Tariff of Abomination, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Henry VIII
king of England who broke away from the Catholic Church beginning the Protestant Reformation
Doctrine of Nullification
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
Great Kings
the names by which Persian rulers went as they were exalted as something close to gods
Early attempts at colonial unity
they arose sporadically when conditions warranted
Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association
This company, beginning in 1906, aggressively recruited workers from the Philippines to serve as cheap laborers in Hawaii.
Charles Lindbergh
aviator of the "Spirit of St. Louis" he was the first man to perform a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean 7: 1934-1941
jefferson inaugural adress
declared he would not aviod foreign aliances
Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.
Maryland Toleration Act
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland. Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland, and this protected the Catholics from Protestant rage of sharing the land. Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
First Bank of the US
(GW) 1791-1811, by Hamilton, came about strict vs loose construction
219. Constitution: Executive branch
One of the three branches of government, the executive enforces laws. It is headed by the president, who has the power to veto legislation passed by Congress.
dar al islam
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Rise of labor leaders
During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
Federal Reserve System
1913 - central banking system of the US - created by the Federal Reserve Act - quasi public system
125. Grenville’s Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
Zachary Taylor
Whig who won election of 1848, died in office before accomplishing much.
666. Charles Sumner
The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State.
The philosophy of social darwinism promoted the idea that
only the fittest individuals survived in a free marketplace
reaction to jays treaty
people didnt like it thinking that we were babies and that we surrendered to britian
772. E.C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress.
1277. Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
Freedom of speech and the freedom of the press (First Amendment)
What did the Sedition Act threaten
contrast the era of division and the tang and sui eras
e.o.d = built great wall, weak military system, army made of convicts and mercenaries
s.a.t.e. = repaired great wall, strong military, army made of samurais committed to lord 'til death
both = nomadic invasion
how did the 1989 ruling in the case of Webster v. reproductive health services impact the abortion issue?
it allowed state to legislate on abortion issues, but federal cannot
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