AP US History 84 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Los Angeles
California
baghdad
capital of abbasid dynasty
Persepolis
Where was Perisa's capital?
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
axis powers
Germany, Italy, and japan
Henry David Thoreau
Author of "Walden"
envoy
any accredited messenger or representative.
songhai
successor state to mali; independent kingdom under a berber dynasty; capital at gao
Aeschylus
Greek tragedian, author of the Oresteia
Bicameral
Upper house: the "revising" chamber with limits. Lower house: the more powerful house.
Zhu
Xi Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894).
Sons of Liberty
enforced the Nonimportation Agreements- mobs violently ransacked officials' houses
Persians
The Indian political scene changed dramatically in 520 BCE after these people invaded...
William McKinley
Republican congressman from Ohio, sponsored (McKinley) Tariff bill of 1890, Civil War veteran, ran for president in Election of 1896, championed the gold standard, defeated Bryan in Election of 1896, he was helped by Marcus Hanna, passed Gold Standard Act of 1900
Cecil Rhodes
British entrepreneur and politician involved in the expansion of the British Empire from South Africa into Central Africa. The colonies of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) were named after him.
chiefdom
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links. (p. 311)
Muckrakers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Roger Williams
Fled to Rhode Island after disrespecting the charter of Mass.;; made the first baptist church, religious tolerance in rhode island
Panic of 1819
Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
what period were the simple stone tools developed
Paleolithic
Hartford Convention
meeting of radical New England Federalists considered seceding from Union. Proposed creation of a New England Confederacy and establish peace w/ England for trading.
Erie Canal
(JQA). first great east-west highway, commerce and trade
Agrarian
relating to land; relating to the management or farming of land
Western Front
battle fought from Belgium to Switzerland. included the treacherous trench warfare and massive causalities. included Britain, France, US, Belgium, and Russia.
Xinjiang/"New Region"
an autonomous province in far northwestern China on the border with Mongolia and Kazakhstan
Druids
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples. They provided education, mediated disputes between kinship groups, and were suppressed by the Romans as potential resistance. (92)
stateless societies
Societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states.
Zhou Dynasty
Chinese dynasty lasting from 1029-258 B.C.E. featuring decentralized politics but increased cultural innovation and unity
Jonathan Edwards
-American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
The world's oldest/ first form of writing
cuneiform
republicanism
belief in a republic for the government
 
power instilled in voters
Din-i-Ilahi
religion that Akbar invented trying to unite HIndu and Muslim subjects
extraterritoriality
immunity from the jurisdiction of a nation, granted to foreign diplomatic officials, foreign warships, etc.
National Security Act
created CIA and Dept. of Defense
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, transit, and communications (599
Mahmut II (Ottoman)
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents.
Battle of Quebec
Dramatic British victory in which James Wolfe and his army attacked the city by surprise at night in 1759.
John D. Rockefeller
Owner of Standard Oil
Trust builder based on Horizontal Integration
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
pyramids
A solid figure with a polygonal base and triangular faces that meet a common point, a religious burial temple
Convention of
A conference between the U.S. and France which ended the naval hostilities.
Jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Zachary Taylor
Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (mexican-american war). won the 1848 election. surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. he died during his term and his vice president was millard fillmore.
Laissez-Faire
a policy based on the idea that bovernment sould play as small a role as possible in the ecomony
Middle Passage
The part of the Great Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas. (p. 508)
hajj
Pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to worship at the Ka'ba. (p. 287)
Coal
The discovery of what in Great Britain let them shift away from the use of wood and charcoal?
South advantages/ disadvantages
+'s:  morale, brilliant leaders, bred to fight, possible foreign intervention
 
-'s:  lacked industry, ran short on supplies, economy
pg. 863
p
 
Yalta Conference
1945 at Yalta, Stalin promises representative elections in poland and Bulgaria and Romania. The United Nations was decided upon here. Roosevelt then concontroversialy gave manchuria to USSR and parts of Japan for USSR's help in defeating Japan three months after the fall of Germany. Turns out U.S. could have defeated Japan all on their own
Amnesty Act
Pardoned many of the rebels and allowed them to reenter public acts. (1872)
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
war hawks in congress
young congressmen who pushed madison to go to war
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Garrisons
A place where a group of soldiers is stationed for defensive purposes (e.g. along the Silk Roads)
New Deal
term used by FDR in 1932 acceptance speech that came to describe his whole reform program
Ferdinand of Aragon
king of Spain; married Isabella of Castile which united the nation in the late 15th century
Opponents of the Constitution
Known as Antifederalists, they were mostly commoners who were afraid of strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
Pinkerton detectives
Hired by company officials to crush a strike by steelworkers at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant
treaty of 1818
permitted the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with the Canadians and provided for a 10-year joint occupation of the Oregon Country without a surrender of the rights or claims of either America or Britain.
Battle of Iwo Jima
lasted 6 weeks, several thousand marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, this battle is also notable for the famous photograph of US marines lifting the American flag to a standpoint
Insurgent's revolt
This refers to a revolt in Nicaragua during Wilson's presidency. The incumbent regime was American-backed and provoked American intervention in the country. 7: 1934-1941
American civil war/ Europe
took advantage of war
 
British built ships for south, France invades Mexico city
 
Wealthy supported South, workingclass north
Rutherford B. Hayes
won election of 1876 after Compromise of '77.-ended Reconstruction by withdrawing federal troops from the South-trid to reestablish honest government and tried to fight against efforst to restrict Chinese immigration.-A Gilded Age president
Taft-Katsura Agreement
The US and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China, Japan recognized US control over the Philippines, and the USgranted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
Alliance for Progress
(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
Sumner-Brooks Affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Treaty Of Grenville
After their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Grenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement
The Manhatten Project
What was the secret name of the planning of the atomic bombs?
642. Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham
An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South.
Poet who wrote Leaves of Grass in free verse.
Walt Whitman
811. John A. Roebling (1806-1869), Brooklyn Bridge
Roebling pioneered the development of suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, but died before its construction was completed.
Supreme Court: Ware vHylton,
A treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain required that all debts owed by the U.S. to Britain had to be paid in full. However, a Virginia statute said that American debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. The Supreme Court upheld the treaty, proving that federal laws take precedence over state laws.
Pure Food and Drug Act
restricted the sale of dangerous or ineffective medicines
pg. 923, 920
PS
 
Civil Rights Act
In this act the Equal employment opportunity commision was created and increased power to the government when dealing with segregation in schools and banned discrimination against people in public facilities
From this act huge social reform was made for individuals who were discriminated in education or in society in general. It also was what caused the executive order requiring all federal contraters to "take affirmative action" against discrimination
In 1492 what marked the end of the reconquista?
The capture of Granada
359. Federalist opposition to the War of 1812
The Federalist party was mainly composed of New England merchants, who wanted good relations with Britain and free trade. New England merchants met at the Hartford Convention in protest of the war and the U.S. government’s restrictions on trade.
Civil Rights Acts of 1957 / 1960
2 civil rights laws that provided protections of civil rights and formation of the Civil Rights Commission, eisenhower signed
370. Second bank of the U.S., a reversal of Jeffersonian ideas
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
1. John Adams2. Benjamin Franklin3. Thomas Jefferson4. Roger Sherman5. Robert Livingston
Five men to be on the committee for the Declaration of Independence
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