AP US History 85 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
New Orleans
a Japanese feudal lord
Nazism (Nationalsozialismus, National Socialism; alternatively spelled Naziism) was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany. It was a unique variety of fascism that incorporated biological racism and antisemitism. Nazism presented itself as politically syncretic, incorporating policies, tactics and philosophies from right- and left-wing ideologies; in practice, Nazism was a far right form of politics. The Nazis believed in the supremacy of an Aryan master race and claimed that Germans represent the most pure Aryan nation. They argued that Germany's survival as a modern great nation required it to create a New Order — an empire in Europe that would give the German nation the necessary land mass, resources, and expansion of population needed to be able to economically and militarily compete with other powers.
Betty Freidman
wrote "the feminine Mystique"
an international organization that works for environmental conservation and the preservation of endangered species.
lowest class; performed unskilled, "dirty" jobs such as transporting dead bodies;
to act upon by catalysis.
regional splinter dynasty of mid-10th century; invaded and captured baghdad and ruled abbasid empire under name of sultan
Spanish adventurers like Cortes and Pizarro who conquered Central and South America in the 1500s
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
The belief in the successive reincarnation of the soul in different bodies.
Abbassids or Umayyads? Non-Arab people were more ostracized from society, even if they were Muslim. They were prohibited from holding positions of influence, they paid more taxes, not wanting peasant and urban masses to convert to Islam.
The Byzantine Empire lasted from roughly
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Anne Hutchinson
Challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
New Babylonia
Chaldean Empire ruled by Nebuchadnezzar
wealth lavished with wealth and rescources 
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy. (p. 32)
the centralized government set up in Japan in the twelfth century
House of Burgesses
1st parliament on american soil
George Greenville
British Prime Minister who abandoned the policy of Salutary Neglect by enforcing the navigation acts.
epidemic Disease
any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people.
Black Panthers
an organization of revolutionaries who openly carried weapons on city streets, were responsible for numerous bombings and killings of policemen and of African Americans who opposed the militant leaders' agenda.
the vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted
travel around, either by plane or ship
Democratic societies
Clubs which met for discussion, designed to keep alive the philosophies of the American Revolution. They were sometimes called Jacobean clubs because they also supported the French Revolution.
a thin, beautiful pottery invented in China
Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers. (p. 132)
What do Paleontologists study?
fossils before 3,000 B.C.E.
Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
john marshall
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
A Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)
Panic of 1857
CA gold inflated currency, Crimean War in Europe overstimulated growing of grain, and frenzied land speculation
Northern farms hit, South fine
The name Continental is associated to two congresses. The first is in 1774 and the second is in 1775. They both take place in Philadelphia. the Continental Congress brought the leaders of the thirteen colonies together. This was the beginning of our national union.
the state or condition of being subject to death; mortal character, nature, or existence.
Anaconda plan
the union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
Atlantic System
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. (p. 497)
Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
"women's liberation"
A general term for the organized effort to end sex discrimination and assure women full equality in American society.
Auburn system
Prison reform in 1790, based on concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform; actually led to many mental breakdowns; Auburn system, 1816, allowed congregation of prisoners during the day
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Joe Hill
born Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, and also known as Joseph Hillström was a Swedish-American labor activist, songwriter, and member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, also known as the Wobblies
name applied to the Turkic ppl of eastern Europe and central asia, derived from Ta-ta a Mongolian tribe that inhabited present northeast Mongolia in 5th centrury AD
James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
came into power in 322 and built Constantinople on the site of Byzantium; Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
Alien Laws
laws which placed a barrier on immigration and raised residency requirements to apply for citizenship
rose up out of warlords to conquest north china through nomads & commoners. no examination system
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
Middle Ages
The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century. (p. 396)
Ibn Battuta
Who was born in Morrocco, traveled farther than Marco Polo, and recorded his own journies?
Treaty of 1818
settled disputes between US and England
Louisiana from Lake of Woods to Rocky Mtns.
joint occupation of Oregon 10 years
Share Newfoundland fisheries w/ Canadians
Who is considered to be the “Persian Shakespeare”?
Sons of Liberty
An organization established in 1765, these members (usually in the middle or upper class) resisted the Stamp Act of 765. Even though the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, the Sons of Liberty combined with the Daughters of Liberty remained active in resistance movements.
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Enjoyed much power. (pg118)
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India
(Leonard) Wood
This US General of Rough Rider fame acted as administrator of the American military government instated in Cuba. He made significant improvements in government, finance, education, agriculture, and public health. Much progress was made against yellow fever.
Bubonic Plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. High mortality rate and hard to contain. Disastrous.
(Frank B.) Kellogg
Secretary of State under Coolidge; he won a Nobel Peace Prize for his role in negotiating the Pact of Paris in 1928, which he signed with the French foreign minister.
Communist Satellites
nations effectivly run by USSR , used as "buffer states"
Francis Parkman (-)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America.
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462)
Harun al-Rashid
caliph of Baghdad 786-809, one of the greatest Abbasids, almost a legendary hero in Arabian Nights
the act of freeing slaves, done at the will of the owner.
Molasses Act (1733)
1st tax on colonies (alcohol prod, trade with West Indies impacted)
Second Continental Congress
met May 1775 after Lexington and Concord - all 13 colonies attended (still conservative)
hoped Parliament would redress grievances, but still raised army
John D. Rockefeller
made a fortune with his company, Standard Oil Trust. It used horizontal integration
Federalist Papers
A series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.
Social Issues under Reagan
New Right's push for organized prayer public schools and ban on abortion ((RR) against) first female in SC, (RR) also opposed Equal Rights Movement
557. Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
John Winthrop (1588-1649)
He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Don Juan de Onate
explorer who in 1598 claimed lands north of Mexico for Spain
Mandate of Heaven
Blessing of heaven that if a king ruled unwisely heaven would be displeased and would give the mandate to someone else.
755. Gustavus Swift
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.

[lO es, les, lus]
Fine grained soil deposited in Ordos region in China bent by winds from central Asia; created fertile soil for sedentary agricultural communities
524. General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk's orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor's forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Bank war: its enemies and defenders
During Jackson's presidency, this was a struggle between those who wanted to keep the national bank in operation and those who wanted to abolish it. Jackson and states' rights advocates opposed the national bank, which they felt imposed discriminatory credit restrictions on local banks, making it more difficult for farmers and small businessmen to obtain loans. The bank was defended by Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, the National Republicans, the wealthy, and larger merchants, who felt that local banks credit policies were irresponsible and would lead to a depression.
Energy Crisis
: OPEC puts an embargo on US; leads us to drill for oil in Alaska
Justinian’s Code of Law
became the basis for legal systems of later Europe.
civil rights act of 1866
This act stated that all persons born in the United States, without regard to race or color, were now citizens and shared the same basic rights.
382. Monroe Doctrine: origins, provisions, impact
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Which of the following was true for ALL of the early agricultural systems?
Domestication of perenial plants in each region
1577. Iranian Crisis, the Shah, the Ayatollah Khomeini
1978 - a popular uprising forced the Shah to flee Iran and a Muslim and national leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, established an Islamic Republic based on the Koran. President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staff hostage for 444 days, releasing them January, 1981.
What are two other names for world war I?
the great war and the war to end all wars
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