AP US History 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Islamic religious warrior.
The principle of inertia.
Little boats were called
nongovernmental organizations
Nonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief. Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999).
monopolized firearms, slave infantry, set up empire as major center of trade and islamic culture, encouraged trade with portuguese
Large industrial compounds in japan
foot binding
Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household.
hagia sofia
new church constructed in constantinople during reign of justinian
President Roosevelt coined this term for reporters who dug deep for scandalous information that would boost magazine circulation. The term originates from a character in Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Progress.'
John Deere
United States industrialist who manufactured plows suitable for working the prairie soil (1804-1886)
Virtual representation
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
the European social, economic, and political system of the Middle Ages that had a strict hierarchy
First female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
Conquered Areas: Slavs
Eastern and Central Europe
According to this doctrine, the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country; they should add to its wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency. The settlers were regarded more or less as tenants. They were expected to produce tobacco and other products needed in England and not to bother their heads with dangerous experiments in agriculture or self-government.
Samuel Morse
Inventor of the telegraph allowing quick communication over large distances. The telegraph put distantly separated people in almost instant communication with each other. Made the U.S. seem a lot smaller.
missouri compromise
1820/ maine free state/missouri slave state
Macartney Mission
The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. (p. 560)
Whiskey rebellion
a protest by pennsylvania farmers caused by excise tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali
epidemic disease
any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people.
15th Amendment
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Autonomous state with people sharing a common culture/history/language
Laissez- Faire Economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
The majority ethnic tribe in Rwanda and Burundi who were responsible for the 1994 genocide; previously repressed politically despite being the ethnic majority
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600 (445)
believed to be cannibals, AKA pueblo indians because they built something similar to an apartment building known as a pueblo and they were made of adobe, made textiles, pottery and baskets and lived in the south west
Silk Road
caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central asia and Iran.
The indian political scene was changed dramatically in 520 BCE with the invasion of the _______, who introduced new administrative techniques
Textile mills
What was the first merchanized industry?
545. Hegemony
Domination or leadership - especially the predominant influence of one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states.
- Inventors of the modern alphabet- -
To make known by open declaration; publish; proclaim formally or put into operation a law, decree of a court, etc..
Iran Hostage Crisis
1979 American hostages taken by US-hating Shiites upon Shah's flight from uprising, botched rescue attempts
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. (p. 289)
dynasty that ruled after the Qin for 400 years
Black codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
Cult of Domesticity
tradition that housework and child care were considered the only proper activites for married women
Sugar Act
passed in 1764 by Prime Minister George Grenville; first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown; increased the duty on foreign sugar imported form the West Indies
alliances with socialist party
identify hitler's political programs not
silent spring
novel by Rachel Carson that started the environmental movement.
Crystal Palace
Building erected in London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
Hugo Chavez
current president of Venezuela who is now in his third term of office (which required changing the constitution) and favors socialist policies
kent state
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
John D Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.formed Standard Oil Trust and made millions while monopolizing the oil industry
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him. (p. 607)
American Anti-slavery Society
(1833-1870) It was an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings. It promoted the greater good for slaves, and was not welcomed by American society.
Trans-Sahara trade
Gold, ivory, slaves and spices from below the Sahara with salt, cloth, and metalware from the Sahara
Across the Sahara between North Africa and Europe beyond to West Africa
Aided the rise of African empires and kingdoms in West Africa and spread Islam through West Africa
Zachary Taylor
The Whig candidate of the 1848 election; a military hero who avoided major controversy.
comparative advantage
trade allows people to specialize in what they do best
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that encouraged independence.
Common Sense
The Two Party System
Both political parties had fully become, they were separated by philosophy and policy. The social diversity fostered the horse trading compromises that prevented either from taking extreme positions.
Louis Sullivan
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Increased the # of federal judges
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Political organization of the region. First under congressionally appointed officials and then under popularly elected territorial assemblies. They open territory would not remain under colonies subordinance but would be fully incorporated as new states into expanding American nation. Contained a bill of rights- Prohibited the importation of new slaves. Set specific regulations concerning the conditions under which rerritored can aplly for statehood, gave congresss more political clout. The native ameircans were not very happy though. They felt that Americans were claiming their land without their consent.
John Jay
peace negotiator from New York sent to Paris; saw that French was going to keep land west of Allegheny Mountains, so he secretly made overtures to London; the British then quickly came to terms with Americans and the treaty was signed in 1782
Admiral de Grasse
French Admiral who defeated the Brits in the Caribbean a lot and at the Battle of Chesapeake Bay and finally blockaded Cornwallis, which led to his defeat at Yorktown
George Canning (-)
Led the House of Commons in Parliament. Cut Great Britain from the Holy Alliance in 1823. First leader to recognize the independence of the Spanish colonies in America and support the Monroe Doctrine, which helped restore good relations between the U.S. and Great Britain.
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
20th Amendment
reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Niagara Movement
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909
Benjamin Franklin
The colonial who came most to typify the Enlightenment in America was Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was an influential printer and intellectual, a pioneer in the area of electricity. He agreed with Enlightenment ideals about education, government, and religion, and was (next to Washington) the favorite son of the Colonies. Near the end of his life, he organized a treaty with France crucial to giving America the opportunity to end the Revolution.
bill of rights
a list of individual rights and liberties
Las Gorras Blancas
a group active in American Southwest, believed in Mexican reclamation of land taken by Anglo farmers & used intimidation & raids to accomplish their goals
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America. (p. 505)
218. Constitution: Senate
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
Tariff of Abomination
1828, (JQA), south did it on purpose so congress would vote against it, but no, they were wrong, , Tariff with very high rates on goods imported from other countries. Northerners wanted tariff to promote own industry-Southerners had no protection.
Arab Oil Embargo
After the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U.S. and caused a crisis
The "starving time"
at Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia was a period of forced starvation initiated by the Powhatan Confederacy to remove the English from Virginia.
a. phillip randolph
He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war.

Independent Treasury Act
An Act to provide for the better Organization of the Treasury, and for the Collection, Safe keeping, Transfer, and Disbursement of the public Revenue.
a person sent by a church into an area to carry on evangelism or other activities, as educational or hospital work.
261. Vice-president John Adams
A Federalist, he had little say in Washington's administration.
effects of erie canal
drew settlers to the west, built more east-west links, and inspired other canal construction
Constitutional Convention of Philadelphia
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, to address problems in The United States of America following independence from Great Britain. Although it was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention of many of the Convention's proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was from the outset to create a new government rather than "fix" the existing one. It was not since The Annapolis Conference that the states had seriously considered the situation of the Articles of Confederation.
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun was part of the New Southern Congress of 1811. He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks. Calhoun supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers.
Federal Reserve Sytem under Paul Volcker
(RR), aided in keeping money from growing too fast, reduced inflation
1599. Supreme Court: Bakke v. Board of Regents, University of California at Davis, 1978
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
Election of : popular vote, electoral vote, house vote: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay - 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
Abu al-Abbas and the Abbasid Caliphate
This person led a revolt in 750 that leads to the overthrow of the Umayyads and establish this dynasty
loyal Brits
Prussian landed aristocrat
Zarathustra's compositions
The Gathas were
Mary Wollstonecraft
(1750-1797) Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that political rights should extend to women.
any narrative of achievements/events in history/ heroic exploits
Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465. (p. 314)
south Vietnamese peasants who supported Ho Chi Minh
Tallmadge Amendment
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
philosophy that stressed need for alignment with Dao or cosmic force
William Sherman
Presented small-state/NJ plan to Constitutional Convention
buying materials and forcing their inflated sale
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Amerindian peoples who inhabited the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean at the time of Columbus. (p. 423)
Aztec tribal patron God, central figure of human sacrifice and warfare, sun god
Movement against alcohol that was mainly made up of women; most influential reform movement in antebellum era; saw alcohol as worst social vice.
most popular form of commercial entertainment around. (1865-1900). A cheap variety show
What people's alphabet predecessed the Greek and Latin alphabets?
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Mandate System
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. (p. 770)
force act
Federal Government could send troops into South Carolina to enforce tariff- in response to the Nullification
was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who defended his people against the encroachment of the United States on their tribal lands for over 25 years
Francis Parkman
historian with defective eyes that forced him to write in darkness with the aid of a guiding machine; chronicled the struggle between France and England in colonial times for mastery of North America
adoption and spread of Greek culture throughout the lands that Alexander conquered
church of england reformation
1534: causes bitchin problems
Asian mainland
Columbus returned without gold, silk and spices from Asia, but he insisted that he has reached island off *which* mainland
A large central city in the Mesoamerican region. Located about 25 miles Northeast of present day Mexico City. Exhibited city planning and unprecedented size for its time. Reached its peak around the year 450.
The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 464)
Americans who opposed the flood of "new" immigrants from southern and eastern Europe after 1880. They also denounced Catholics and other minority groups, tried to keep them out of the best jobs, and discouraged their efforts to climb the social ladder.
Tammany Hall
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Joesph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition (780)
It remained territory of Spain until the Spanish-American War ended in 1898, and gained formal independence from the U.S. in 1902. Between 1953 and 1959 a Revolution occurred, removing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, and installing a government led by Fidel Castro.
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons. A primary feature in India's climate.
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
Interstate Commerce Act
Created the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices.
dalai lama
Originally, a title meaning 'universal priest' that the Mongol khans invented and bestowed on a Tibetan lama (priest) in the late 1500s to legitimate their power in Tibet. Subsequently, the title of the religious and political leader of Tibet. (
William Seward
US senator who negotiated purchase of Alaska
something done or given to show thanks or respect; a payment
a system of mutual give and take, allowing individuals or social groups of unequal power to get along while preserving unequal power relationships.
Admiralty Court
a court that has jurisdiction over maritime cases.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
During the Civl War, women in the North...
a. Generally played a small role
b. Worked on farmers but not in cities
c. Saw their numbers in the manufacturing force greatly reduced
d. Had new opportunities opened to them in industry
e. Agitated for the vote
was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661. Sunni Muslims consider him the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shi'a Muslims regard him as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of which are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shi'a branches
The Election of 1800
Nasty battle, Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican) defeated John Adams (Federalist).
Qin Dynasty
China; 221 to 200 BCE; organized, centralized, and territorial; patriarchal; legalism; overthrown by peasants
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
Elastic Clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers.
catal huyuk
an Neolithic villiage in present day Turkey
Yuan, Khublai Khan
The ____ Chinese Empire was established under _______ ____, grandson of Genghis.
a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
291. Doctrine of Nullification
in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
leader of Cuba; led revolution and seized control of gvt. /country; we got along with him until he started nationalizing our land
money or capital given in order to gain profitable returns, as interest, income, or appreciation in value
Common Law
• The heart of the English legal system • Based on judicial decisions • Common law courts preformed trials with jusries usually made up of local men • Under common law sldiers could not fire on civilians without the order from a civil magistrate, the Boston Massacre broke common law
Mexican Revolution
Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
853. Bret Harte
Wrote humorous short stories about the American West, popularized the use of regional dialects as a literary device.
National Woman's party
Pacifist group opposed war, led by Alice Paul
A species of goosefoot grown as a crop primarily for its edible seeds
Kilwa, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Mogadishu
All important central commericial centers in East Africa.
Jefferson Davis
The first (and only) president of the Confederate States of America. He had been a respected Senator from Mississippi and former Secretary of War, but proved unable to provide strong national leadership for the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Escobedo v. Illinois
A United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment. The case was decided a year after the court held in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.
V-E day:
victory in Europe day: may 7th 1945: Germany surrenders since they now have no leader
22. Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
civil rights; a group of people rented out bus systems and they would go into bus terminals and sit in the wrong seat; their goal was to integrate the bus terminals
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)
Darius I (Darayavaush)
Seized the throne from Cambyses in 522 B.C.E.
Intolerable Acts
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
peter the great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Treaty of Paris
1763- French power is thrown off North America- Spain gives up Florida, Britain gets Canada, and Louisiana, French get Sugar Islands
James I, Charles I
reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
199. Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State.
Define pure democracy
direct rule by the people on all issues
warring states period
the period from 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC when regional warlords battled amongst eachother and there was no ruler
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Was a 1950's doctor who told the whole baby boom generation how to raise their kids. He also said that raising them was more important and rewarding than extra $ would be.
Birth of American Merchant Trade
In the early 1790's the international trade system in America was still fairly new. Congress had passed a new tariffs giving American merchant ships preference in an attempt to stimulate an expansion in domestic shipping. This new stimulation coupled with the war in Europe resulted in America having the largest merchant marine and foreign trade of any country other than England. This meant that America had one of the most dominant international commerce systems of any nation by the time the first global Industrial revolution came about
1431. Sweatt v. Painter, 1950
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
The end of territorial expansion made it difficult for the 3 empires to
maintain their military and support their bureaucrats
quartering act of 1763
were used by the British forces in the American colonies to ensure that British troops had adequate housing and provisions. These acts were amendments to the Mutiny Act, which had to be renewed annually by Parliament.
The most distinctive feature of the RI colony was that..
it enjoyed the most complete religious freedom of all the English colonies
604. Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
Democrat - James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican - John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig - Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
why did hilary clinton get so much abuse for her role in health care reform?
congress found it too difficult to execute and maintain. thinking the plan was ridiculous, they gave her a lot of trouble since she played a major role in the undertaking
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