AP US History AP exam review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Constantinople
Istanbul today
safi ai din
...
SNCC
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons
Alchemy
turning something simple into something precious
itinerant
traveling from place to place
fief
land given to a vassal
Soviets
Russian elected councils that originated as strike committees during the 1905 St. Petersburg disorders; they represented a form of local self-government that went on to become the primary unit of government in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The term was also used during the cold war to designate the Soviet Union
Clovis
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
Most Mexica slave
worked as domestic servants
Akkadians
Northern Mesopotamians who built an empire by first conquering Sumer
Barbary pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
censor
An official who examines publications, mail, literature, and so forth in order to remove or prohibit the distribution of material deemed dangerous or offensive.
Witchcraft
many people (mostly women) were accused of this and burned at the stake in medieval and early modern Europe.
Mary Astell
English writer: absolute sovereignty better in family than in the state
Wang Yangming
Neo-Confucian thinker of Ming influenced by "School of the Mind" Interpretation in Japan- Oyomei Confucianism
Mercantilism
the principles of mercantilism guided the economic policies of virtually all the European nation-states in the 16th and 17th centuries. It enhanced the position of the new merchant capitalists, whose overseas ventures were thought to benefit the entire nation and to be worthy of government assistance. Increased competition among nations. EVERY EUROPEAN STATE WAS TRYING TO FIND MARKETS FOR ITS EXPORTS WHILE TRYING TO LIMIT ITS IMPORTS. In England the mercantilistic program thrived at first on the basis of the flourishing wool trade with the European continent and particularly with the great cloth market in Antwerp. INDIVIDUAL DOESN'T MATTER! Believe there is a finite amount of gold/silver and each country has a share 1: 1607-1763
Panic of 1893
(GC2), Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
hapu
Primary social unit of Maori society in New Zealand; divisions of tribes consisting of extended families; land allotted to extended families in common.
Greek Fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
John Winthrop
Governor of Massachusetts Bay colony who wrote "A Model of Christian Charity".
Li Dazhao:
Headed Marxist study circle at University of Beijing; saw peasants as harbingers of Communist revolution in China; influenced Mao Zedong.
Jeffersonian Republicans
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
6.9 welfare capitalism
practice of busineses proving welfare-like services to employees
John Lewis
Led CIO, Committee for Industrial Organization; unskilled workers unionize
Battle of Shiloh
Confederate forces suprised union troops & drove them across the Tennesee river; union got backup and won the battle but it was one of the most bloody battles in the civil war
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun.
cotton
The plant that produces fibers from which many textiles are woven. Native to India, it spread throughout Asia and then to the New World. It has been a major cash crop in various places, including early Islamic Iran, Yi Korea, Egypt, and the US
xenophobic
an unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange.
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
anyang
the ancient Chinese capital of the Shang Dynasty
Diaspora
A Greek word meaning "dispersal", used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found throughout the world
declared that states could nullify acts of congress
kentucky resolution
Guillotine
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
Revolutions of 1848
the nationalist and liberal movements in Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary; after temporary success they were surpressed
By 1000 C.E., the population of SubSaharan Africa had risen to around
22 million
George Catlin
Famed painter of Indian life and advocate of national parks
James Cook
his vogage to Hawaii opened the islands to the West
Albert Gallatin
the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the "Watchdog of the Treasury," and proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget.
Olmec Culture
cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo a La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion , beginnings of calendar and writing systems.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Charles Wilson Peale
Marylander who painted over 60 portraits of Washington
Pullman Strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Spanish Inquisition
An organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion instead of Roman Catholicism.
Settlement Houses
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
majority leader
the elected leader of the party controlling the most seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate; is second in the authority to the speaker of the House and in the Senate is regarded as its most powerful member
Agricultural Revolutions
the change between food gathering and food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution
Declaration of Independence
adopted by continental congress on July 4, 1776. it announced that the 13 colonies were now independent of british rule
manchu/qing dynasty
1. when the qing warriors overthrew the ming emporer, the _____ dynasty began.
2. these people were not ethnically chinese, and they tries to remain an ethnic elite, forbidding the chinses to learn the language or intermarry with them.
3. used the civil service examination extensively, allwing chinese people of all classes to rise to positions of responsibility within the empire.
for the first half of the 1800s america was the worlds leading importer of
people
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
22nd Amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve
At its high point, the Aztec empire contained a population of around
12 million
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
John F. Kennedy
1961-1963; , president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
132. Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
NE Emigrant Aid Society
Antislavery organization who sent 2000 people into Kansas
Mahmud of Ghazni's incursion into India in the eleventh century was inspired by
plunder than permanent rule
With the exception of the emperor and his family, the most exalted members of Chinese society were
the scholar-bureaucrats
The Whiskey Rebellion
group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794)
Financing the War
north raised 2.6 million through state gov, bounds.(only if you made 5000 plus than you were taxed) Morill tariff, income taxed use for 1st time, $430 (most done through bonds) million were printed in greenbacks were printed that couldn't be redeemed for gold, Banking act - 1st national bank since jackson, it was a little more stable, inflation increased 80% during the war
juvenal habyarimana
1. led a military coup, unseated the government and eventually established a one-party republic.
2. this government was fairly successful in keeping the peace until 1994, when he was killed in a plane crash.
Gramm Rudman Act
(RR) , It provided automatic spending cuts, balancing budget act
1992 - what went wrong (GB1)
(GB1) American economy favored powerful not middle class, natioanal debt, employment fell, forced into low paying jobs, losing benefits of pensiosn and health, black and hispanic = hit hardest
Albany Plan of Union
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
Common Sense
written in 1776 was one of the most potent pamphlets ever written. It called for the colonists to realize their mistreatment and push for independence from England. The author Thomas Paine introduced such ideas as nowhere in the universe sis a smaller heavenly body control a larger. For this reason their is no reason for England to have control over the vast lands of America. The pamphlet with its high-class journalism as well as propaganda sold a total of 120,000 copies within a few months.
cash and carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954) Court ruled that seperate facilities were not equal. Instructed integration. Overruled Plessy v. Furgeson
open door policy
1. through this policy the US pedged its support of the sovereignty of the chinese government and announced equal trading privileges among all imperial powers.
Supreme Court Appointments
(WJC) Ruth Bader (first SC by Demo pres), Stephen Breyer (antitrust enforcement)
United States v. Butler
a Supreme Court Ruling from 1936 that declared the AAA of 1933 tax on food processors unconstitutional
Treaty of Paris (1763):
The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.
Family and Medical LeaveAct 1993
(WJC) company with more than 50 employees, allow 12 weeks of unpaid keave
the american rebellion was especially dangerous to the british because they were also worried about
possible revolts in ireland and war with france
The catholic church dramatically pushed the sale of indulgences in the sixteenth century because
of the need to raise funds for the construction of St. Peter's basilica
at the begining of the CW, southerners believed
that the north was too divided to fight effectively, "Cotton was king" and they had a superior culture to that of the North
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