AP US History FINAL Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Huguenots
Protestant worshippers.
Hepburn Act
-Roosevelt, Congress
-1906
-America.
-This act gave the ICC strong enforcement powers.
-It also gave the government the authority to set and limit shipping costs. The act set maximum prices for ferries, bridge tolls, and oil pipelines.
-Just and reasonable rebates.
1630
Massachusetts Bay Colony established
Manchu
This was the governing... administration/clan/dynasty (?) of China after the Russo-Japanese war, when the European powers began carving out spheres of influence.
Oversoul
the Transcendentalist's idea of God.
Sun Yat-sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death; attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders; advocated the Three Principles of the People
Mataram
Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17thcentury; Dutch East India company paid tribute to the kingdom after 1670s; allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java
Semitic
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic. (p. 32)
Qianlong
Chinese Qing emperor (r. 1736-1795), grandson of Kangxi who continued his grandfather's conquests by consolidating hold on Xinjiang province (westernmost). He made Vietnam, Burma and Nepal vassal states of China, and delegated responsibilities to his favorite Eunuchs, marking the decline of the Qing Dynasty
antebellum
time period before the civil war
Gullah
the language spoken by African American slaves (a mixture of English and African)
New Negro
(African Americans) (1920s) The artists and intellectuals of black America who came to prominence in the 1920s. The expression was taken from the title of an anthology of writing from the Harlem Renaissance, edited by Alain Locke.
George Stephenson
built the first steam-powered locomotive in the 1820s
1000: This Sanskrit term meaning 'great king' was part of the Indian bureaucratic tradition borrowed by the Malay people:
Maharaja
Ahimsa
principle of non-violence against all living things in Hinduism
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882).
Washinton's Neutrality Proclamation
Established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict. (1793)
scientific management
efficient working methods to increase productivity, usually results in lower wages, power to managers
Umayyad Caliphate
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate. (p. 232)
Define Scientific Method.
Observation to gain scientific knowledge
Daoism
Chinese philosophy with origins in the Zhou dynasty; it is associated with legendary philosopher Laozi, and it called for a policy of non-competition
e
Which of these items departed most markedly from Washington's advice about our conduct in European affairs?
A) The nonimportation and embargo legislation, 1807-1809
B) The enunciation of the Monroe Doctrine, 1823
C) The cash-and-carry legislation of the 1930s
D) Wilson's European policy, 1914-1916
E) Acheson's "containment" policy, 1947-1952
Charles Cornwallis
British general; exhausted by General Nathanael Greene in Carolina campaign of 1781; surrendered entire force of seven thousand men on October 19, 1781 at Yorktown to de Grasse and Washington
varna
(Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making
Borobodur
A massive stone monument on the Indonesian island of Java, erected by the Sailendra kings around 800 C.E. The winding ascent through ten levels, decorated with rich relief carving, is a Buddhist allegory for the progressive stages of enlightenment.
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
tang dynasty
buddihist, empress wu , open dynasty
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Gerald Nye
Instigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated World War I munitions manufacturers as "merchants of death"
Truman Doctrine
pressures.” The US backed both Greece (gov’t won in 1949) and Turkey (because big US ally) as a result.
John Dewey
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
Bengal
Region of northeastern India. It was the first part of India to be conquered by the British in the eighteenth century and remained the political and economic center of British India throughout the nineteenth century.(812)
Bantu
Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. (p. 219)
karbala
site of defeat and death of husayn, son of ali; marked beginning of shi'a resistance to umayyad caliphate
Dispora
People who have settled far from their original homeland but who still share
some measure of ethnic identity.
corrupt-practices acts
Many of these types of legislation were passed at the state level to limit the amount of money that candidates could spend for their election. They also restricted gifts from corporations to politicians.
Confederation of 1867
Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.(p. 627)
Flexible Response
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
Colonel Custer
Led troops to suppress Indians and return them to the reservation but was destroyed by a greater force of 2,500 Indians
Columbus
Marco Polo inspired whom to attempt to find a passage to the East?
labor union
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.
manumission
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave. (p. 505)
Justinian I
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians
conversion relation
A soul bearing examination that one had to undergo to become saint.
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
appeasement
practice of giving in to an aggressor nation's demands in order to keep peace
Mughal Empire
mixture of Mongol and Turkish people from central Asia in India
Phillis Wheatley
Female slave imported from Africa in 1761 at the age of 8. She was sold to John and Susannah Wheatley. Susannah taught her to read and write, and in 1769, she published her first poem in Boston. In 1773, she went to London to celebrate the publication of her poetry volume there. She became a transatlantic sensation and became emancipated upon her return to Boston.
Martin Luther
________ was a German monk who challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and called for reform in the early sixteenth century, touching off the Protestant Reformation.
How many American troops were in France by the end of the war?
2 million
Rosa Parks
arrested for refusing to give up bus seat to white man
Importing European weapons only did what?
promoted european weapon companies
1340. Warsaw Pact
To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.
medicine man
Among Native Americans, a holy man or sharman who exercises spiritual powers and is conseidered able to cure disease.
Suez Crisis
Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.
polyphonic music
Music in which two or more melodies sound simultaneously
Draco and Solon
aristocrats who worked to create the democracy in Athens to ensure fair, equal, and open participation
carpetbaggers & scalawags
northerners who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Virginia Company of London
a joint-stock company that sent settlers to Jamestown
California Gold Rush
gold discovery in Sutter's Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West
Treaty of Nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws. This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these were Hong Kong.
1014. Elkins Act, 1903, rebates
This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
William Clark Explorer
along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchaced Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration. p. 188
loyalist
a person who is loyal; a supporter of the sovereign or of the existing government, esp. in time of revolt.
Scramble for Africa
Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa.
The Anti-masonic party
Party formed out of fear of the freemasons after the Morgan affair. First "third party" in the United States.
Two religious groups that grew most dramatically because of the "New Immigration" were
Jews and Roman Catholics
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family. (p. 493)
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
judiciary act of 1789
to asaign supreme court powers that the constitution had forseen
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
(BH) Authorized the President to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves
Federal Farm Board
had half a billion to buy up and stockpile grain and cotton surpluses in order to support farm prices was unsuccessful as farmers produced too much and the budget ran out
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
746. Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
uprising
to rise up; get up, as from a lying or sitting posture.
Bank Recharter Veto message
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage
argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world
Voting granted to church members - 1631
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
lewis and clarks value of their expeditions
we got to know more geography and learned about nautral resources
Patrician
land-owning noble-men
Chou Dynasty
1027 BCE
1300-1500 CE
Late Middle Ages
Puritans
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. (p. 487)
Mercantilism
Government run economy. Colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country. To add to wealth, prosperity and self-sufficiency. Was detrimental to American economy b/c could only trade with England so the prices were all out of whack.
steamship
overseas transportation method first invented by Robert Fulton in 1807; allowed efficient transportation of goods at speed
Hidden Imam
last imam; disappeared mysteriously
Herodotus
Heir to the technique of historia-'investigation'-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. (128)
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
recession
an economic decline marked by unemployment and rise in inflation
Horace Mann
1796-1859, U.S. educational reformer: instrumental in establishing the first normal school in the U.S. 1839.
Portugal
Which country controlled trading in the Indian Ocean beginning in the 16th century
Inca
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru that ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
People originally from Xinjiang in northwest China, who were preeminent from 50 to 240 C.E. At its height this kingdom controlled much of present-day Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India, fostering trade and prosperity by connecting to b
Kushans
Nullification
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Guillotine
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Forbidded any "combination...or conspiracy in the restraint of trade." Was not very effective, claimed unions to be monopolies.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (KS slave, NE free); proposed by Stephen A Douglas
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
What writer believed people had the right to overthrow the government?
Locke
Cathars
Medievale heretics, also known as the Albigensians, who considered the material world evil; their followersr renounced wealth and marriage and promoted an ascetic existence
c
In the history of American education, the first half of the 19th century was marked by
A) introduction of church-supported elementary schools.
B) widespread establishment of public high schools.
C) struggle for the establishment of tax-supported public schools.
D) struggle over the compulsory-education issue.
E) controversy over coeducation in public schools.
Patrick Henry
cried before the Virginia Assembly, "Give me liberty or give me death!"
Missouri Compromise
Missiouri wanted to be state
james tallmage of NY
compromise: mis as slave state and maine as free state. slavery prohibited N 36 30. now even balance in congress (12 to 12)
Wampanoags
indian tribe that tried to be peaceful
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Olney
Attorney General who urged dispatch of federal troops to restore mail deliverance during Pullman strike
Copperheads
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Hebrew Bible
A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. (99)
Sasanid Empire
Iranian empire, established ca. 226, with a capital in Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia. The Sasanid emperors established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islamic Arab armies overthrew the empire ca. 640. (p. 225)
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
USS Panay
Japanese bombed USS Panay and apologized for incident, claiming it was an "accident".
XYZ Affair
Adams sent three representatives to Paris, where the French demanded money in order for the Americans even to be able to sit down and negotiate with them. The Americans returned, and Adams made the Affair public. Public opinion turned anti-French after this incident, to the point that there was almost a declaration of war.
Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
Mohenjo-Daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. (p. 48)
Champa
A state formerly located in what is now southern Vietnam. It was hostile to Annam and was annexed by Annam and destroyed as an independent entity in 1500. (p. 366)
Dynasty
(n.) a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the United States' destiny was to expand from coast-tocoast.
(Henry Demarest) Lloyd
This author wrote 'Wealth against Commonwealth,' an attack on the Standard Oil Company, in 1894.
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)
Three Mile Island
(JEC) Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. which failed, causing radiation to be admitted in the air 1979
American Indian Movement
Indian activist organization in the United States; seized the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972;1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota,
Zheng He
He traveled to the Southeast Asia, Ceylon, India, the Persian Gulf, Arabia, and the East African coast, where he established tributary relationships. His technologically advanced fleets and armies were able to face any adversity
Millet System
Divided regions in the Ottoman Empire by religion (Orthodox Christians, Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims). Leaders of each millet supported the Sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
absolution
The theory popular in France and other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks. (p. 452)
Caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
coureurs de bois
Itinerant, unlicensed fur traders of NEW FRANCE known as "wood-runners" to the English on Hudson Bay and "bush-lopers"
Square Deal
Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation
mandate
the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory
Western Front
Front est. in WW1; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict.
Whigs (Patriots)
most numerous in New England, fought for independence
Treaty of Tordesillas
________ was negotiated between Spain and Portugal in 1494. Portugal agreed to concentrate its activities in Africa and the East, leaving New World exploration and settlement (except for Brazil) to Spain.
20. In this case, T. Roosevelt attacked the Northern Securities Company to trustbust the railroad company. The owners, J.P. Morgan and James Hill, wanted a virtual monopoly in the Northwest railroads. The Supreme Court sided with Roosevelt, and the compan
Northern Securities Case
Martin Luther King Jr
became leader of civil rights movement, urged nonviolent resistance
Church of England
Anglican! worldy. must pay taxes to the church.
709. Greenbacks
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Aqueduct
a pipe or channel for moving water to a lower level, often across a great distance
De Facto Discrimination
discrimination that is the result not of law but rather of tradition and habit
Joan of Arc
A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her trial for heresy and her execution by burning at the stake; is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
Sir Thomas More
English; wrote Utopia about an ideal society
Lecompton Constitution
in kansas, could vote for slavery or without, but protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Robert Morris (1734-1806)
A delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He agreed that Britain had treated the colonies unfairly, but he didn't believe that the colonies should dissolve ties with Britain. He argued against the Declaration of Independence
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
Meji Restoration
1867; The policy of Japan to reverse its isolation and replace the feudal rulers of the shogun and increase the power of the emperor
834. Chautauqua Movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
Thomas Jefferson
Under the executive branch of the new constitution, Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State. When Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a new national bank, Jefferson adamantly spoke against it. He felt it would violate states rights by causing a huge competitor for the state banks, then causing a federal monopoly. Jefferson's argument was that since the Constitution did not say Congress could create a bank they should not be given that power. This is the philosophy of strict construction. Thomas Jefferson's beliefs led to the creation of the political party, Democratic Republicans. They believed in an extremely weak central government, no special privileges for special classes, especially manufacturers, and did not believe in letting every white male the ability to vote, only those intelligent enough to make wise decisions.
patriarchal
the male head of a family or tribal line.
Suez Canal
A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Atlantic Charter of 1914
WW2 alliance agreement b/ U.S. and Britain; included clause that recognised right of all people to choose government under wich they live.
William Bradford
A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water. (p. 326)
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
mccullogh v maryland
an attempt by maryland to destroy a brach of the bank of the us by imposing a tax on its notes
declared the bank constitutional by the hamiltonain democracy
right for maryland to be taxed
battle of little bighorn
U.S troops wiped out by crazy horse and sitting bull
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
was in response to the plight of farmers as well as to widespread practice among the railroads of giving kickbacks and preferential treatment. Created the Interstate Commerce Commission. Railroads were required to publish their rates and weren't allowed to charge a different rate w/o giving public notice.
spain after ferdinand and isabella
controlled by Charles V (a hapsburg), who was the holy roman emperor, therefore had control over lots of territory other than spain. he had so much land to rule that he decided to abdicate the throne and gave control to his brother Phillip II. Under Phillip II, there was a LOT of expansion for Spain. This was also the period of the Spanis Inquisition. But then the Spanish armada was defeated byEngland and its power deteriorated.
253. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811. (p. 625)
Civil Rights Act 1965 (Voting Rights Act)
gave federal protection to blacks attempting to vote.
what are the duties of the committees? (4)
1. prepare legislation for consideration
2. hold hearings
3. administrative oversight
4. primary source for policy leadership
William Pitt
Who was he?
Importance of his leadership?
Who was he?- Also known as "the great commoner" because of his leadership during the French and Indian War. Got much of his strength from common people.
Importance of his leadership?- In 1757 Pitt became a foremost leader in the London government. Quickly earned the title "organizer of victory". Picked young and energetic leaders.  His strategies helped the British eventually win the war.
Which of the following is a true statement about Swahili?
As a language, it employed Bantu grammar and Arabic linguistic terms.
1764
Sugar Act
1905
Date: Russo-Japanese War
Subsistence
a means of surviving
Zachary Taylor's Party
VP - Fillmore
Northern Renaissance
Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe (713)
Brook Farm
Transcendentalist communal experiment known for its creative atmophere and the number of transcendentalists who lived there at various times.
Pericles
Athenian political leader that guided the development of Athens during the Peloponnesian wars
conservative
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church.
Shang Dynasty
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
impeachment
A formal accusation of wrongdoing against a public official. According to the United States Constitution, the House of Representatives can vote to impeach an official, but the Senate actually tries the case.
inquisition
period of intense questioning: a succession of detailed and relentless questions
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
encomiendas
spanish system of enslaving the indians and forcing them into christianity
insurgents revolt
...Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule - supported by American sugar planters - yellow press coverage of the Spanish backlash led to the Spanish-American War
This mental-health reformer helped improve the conditions in insane asylums.
Dorthea Dix
Rationing
Americans at home during WWII reminded to conserve material in all aspects of life to support the military; resulted in saving up of money to cause economic boom after war
Koryo
Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259. (p. 292)
Emancipation
freeing someone from the control of another (e.g. Emancipation Proclamation)
Indra
Early Indian god associated with the Aryans; the king of the gods, associated with warfare and thunderbolts.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Old Lights
orthodox clergymen that did not support the Awakening
Progressive
In politics, one who believes in continuing social advancement, improvement, or reform.
Zeppelin
A large rigid dirigible designed to carry passengers or bombs. Used by Germans for bombing and scouting out enemies in WW1. People overreacted to their relative danger.
guild
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and created an organized institution to promote their economic and political interests.
khipu
System of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information. (p. 312)
Batavia, Indonesia
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
1890
Year of the Battle of Wounded Knee
"Star-Spangled Banner"
National Anthem, written by Frances Scott Key during war of 1812.
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
satrap
The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Enjoyed much power. (pg118)
Pilgrims
From Holland, came to new world at plymouth rock
Savorgnan de Brazza
Franco-Italian explorer sent by the French government to claim part of equatorial Africa for France. Founded Brazzaville, capital of the French Congo, in 1880.
English West Indies
developed to produce sugar and therefore begins to practice large scale slavery.
tribute system
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies. (p. 307)
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who emphasized the importance of the frontier in American history.
Lord North
The Prime Minister who really wanted to punish the colonies with taxes and legislation
Tripolitan War
A war (1801-05) that Tripoli declared on the United States because of American refusal to pay tribute for the safe passage of shipping in Barbary Coastal waters.
Akkad
city north of Sumer; rose to dominate the region; first known code of laws; 1700 BCE overthrown by Babylon
Gilgamesh
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
william penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
spanish armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. (355)
 
 
 
 
210. Constitution: Committee system
 
 
 
After a bill is introduced in Congress, it is assigned to a small group of legislators for review and consideration, and the committee must vote to approve the bill before it is returned to the Senate or the House for a vote.
Byzantium and Russia
- Russia created several trading centers- Byzantine influences included the Cryllic alphabet, writing, codified laws, art and architecture- Center of Orthodox Christianity (this shifts Northward)
corporate
of, for, or belonging to a corporation or corporations:
Paxton Boys' Uprising
- December 1763 the Scots-Irish of Paxton Township, PA murdered 6 Christian Indians; later 14 more a) After Pontiac War, many frontiersmen began to assume that all Indians were enemies of all whites b) Benjamin Franklin and others met them when they were on their march at Germantown and persuaded them to go home c) Known as "Christian white Savages"
sundiata
a member of the keita clan; created an unified state that became the mali empire
541. 49th Parallel
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
"Know-Nothing" Party
the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.
Populist Party Platform
Secret Ballot, Popular Election of US Senators, Direct Democracy, Banking Reform, Government Ownership of Railroads, Graduated Income Tax, Free and Unlimited Coinage of Silver, Pro Labor
Matteo Ricci
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
Qin Shi Huangdi
Qin ruler; wanted to unify china; known for his book burning; not popular, scholars and poor people hated him; built great wall to protect China
Nzinga Mvemba
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.
peter stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Barbados slave code
Established in 1661, it gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions.
Maysville Road Veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
1405. Alaska, Hawaii
McKinley had purchased Alaska in 1867 for nine cents an acre and it was admitted to the Union in 1959. Alaska had great natural resources, including gold and oil reserves. Hawaii became the 50th state in 1959.
John Smith
________ was a soldier of fortune who supplied the early Jamestown settlement with leadership, without which the colony would have quickly perished.
most-favored-nation status
A clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories. (p. 686)
Thirty Years War
war from 1618-1648 that was the worst of the Holy Roman Empire's international conflicts. It caused long-lasting depopulation and economic decline.
Commodore Oliver Perry
took charge of fleet on lake erie. defeated british and forced them to surrender.
a Jewish sect that looked for the appearance of a savior
The Essenes were
Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French. (p. 593)
Crittenden compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
Economies of Scale
A concept of economics that holds that the cost per unit decreased as the number of units produced increases. The lower the costs of manufacturing, the cheaper the price could be set. The cheaper the set price, the more they sold. 
Group that sent slaves back to Liberia
The American Colonization Society
National Organization of Women (NOW)
U.S. organization founded in 1969 to campaign for women's rights
United States v. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive priveledge was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions
indulgences, Martin Luther, and the Protestant Reformation
contributing factors to the breaking away and formation of the Protestant faith
1447. Stokely Carmichael
In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave more rights to Blacks after Civil War
Bank of the United States
a national bank funded by the federal government and wealthy investors
What were the causes of WWII?
At the outbreak of WWI, nationalism and competition for military and economic strength propelled the Germans to break the restrictions of the Versallies Treaty. The German invasion in 1939 of Poland prompted the British to declare war. Some historians fault the overly strict conditions that the Treaty of Versailles placed on Germany as a partial cause for WWII
401. Election of 1824: popular vote, electoral vote, house vote: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay - 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
What was the main benefit of warfare for the sumerians?
It maintained a supply of slaves (prisoners of combat).
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