AP US History First Semester Final Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Southern Strengths/Northern Strengths
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Vedas
definition: Sanskrit writings, earliest known of Hinduism
significance: showed self-thought and philosophical ideas
islamic/turkish invasion
invaded each other
Jurchen
definition: nomadic people that conquered Khitan, overran northern China, and captured the Song capital
Chinampas
definition: Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields
significance: led to more agriculture
Ashoka
definition: grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
significance: spread Buddhism, an influential religion
Arius
definition: theologist who didn't accept that Jesus was divine (Arianism) and was outlawed as a heretic
significance: demonstrated caesaropapism
Harappan Society
definition: first Indian civilization
significance: made technological inventions such as sewage
Wendi
emperor who established Sui dynasty
"Old Lights"
formally trained congregationalist ministers who felt that church membership (community, etc...) was necessary for salvation
The economic system characterized by state regulation of the economy in order to acquire as much of the fixed wealth of the world as possible is
mercantilism
Minoan society
definition: society that inhabited Crete, created an undeciphered script, fell to invaders around 1100 BCE
significance: beginnings of Greece, its fall led to poleis
Knossos
definition: prominent ancient town on Crete where Bronze Age culture flourished from about 2000 BC to 1400 BCE
significance: "capital" of Minoan society
Marius
definition: A general that advocated redistribution of land; he took down his political enemies and died the next year
significance: Laid the foundation for his successor Sulia
Sparta
definition: Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
significance: encourage a powerful army that influenced Greece
St. Augustine
definition: Scholar that later converted to Christianity, helped explain history and science from a Christian point of view.
significance: helped appeal Christianity to the higher classes
Axum
definition: a town of northern Ethiopia. From the first to the eighth century A.D. it was the capital of an empire that controlled much of northern Ethiopia
significance: Christian society in Africa, one of the few
Samsara
definition: idea of reincarnation back into suffering
significance: demonstrates thought and questions in after-life and creation
Abbasid
definition: The dynasty that came after the Umayyads, devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts
significance: ushered in an era of flourishing of the dar al-Islam
Zhu Xi
definition: (1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China
significance: demonstrated the influence of Buddhism
Turks
definition: a member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire
significance: brought unity to the area of Asia and Eurasia and toppled many kingdoms
Tang
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, restored centralized rule after war
Swahili
definition: the most widely spoken Bantu languages
significance: demonstrated eastern trading
Saljuqs
definition: Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire, sealed their grain
significance: sealed the fate of Byzantium
Rig Veda
definition: first Vedas scripture, deals with spirituality, science, etc
significance: laid out the principles for thought and development in India
Molly Maguires
1870s
An alarming militant labor organization in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania. The irish fraternal society operated within the Ancient Order of Hibernians tried to intimidate coal operates through violence. Added to the idea that labor unions were filled with radicals.
How did Russia expansionism keep serfdom on the rise?
cossacks
English Constitution
an unwritten constitution dividing England into the Monarch, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. Representation was unfair.
antifederalists
localists, tended to be poorer, rural
Causes of WWI
Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, Alliances
___________ was a religious exile dissident
Roger Williams
Clovis
definition: king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
significance: Reunified Europe for some time
Plebeians
definition: Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
significance: cause of most of the civil conflict in Rome
Raminuja
definition: taught in the hands of Vishnu one will win god's grace and live in presence
significance: matured Hinduism
Euphrates
definition: a river that begins in Turkey, flows through Syria and Iraq, and empties into the Persian Gulf, border of the Mesopotamian society.
significance: provided water to Mesopotamia
Land Bridges
definition: exposed land masses that appeared when most of the world was covered in ice, used as passages to new lands
significance: allowed migration to other areas of the world
Olympic games
definition: one of the panhellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
significance: helped unify the many poleis
Sultan
definition: the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
significance: unified an area
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Vishnu
definition: A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
significance: helped with Cults and Hinduism
Varuna
definition: god thought to view people from the heavens, also god of the sky and creation
significance: mixing of the Aryan and Indian cultures
Venus Figurines
definition: figures of women with enhanced sexual characteristics, thought to promote fertility
significance: showed that early humans were capable of religion, deep thought, self-reflection
Shamans
definition: medicine men or women who treat people with mental problems by driving out their demons with elaborate rituals, such as exorcisms, incantations, and prayers
significance: demonstrated nomadic culture
Sharia
definition: the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammed
significance: Sharia is still used today, prohibits actions according to Islam, demonstrates Muhammad's influences
Benefice
definition: a gift given for service performed, usually land
significance: enticed retainers, made being a retainer more appeasing
Hajj
definition: the fifth pillar of Islam, a pilgrimage to Mecca
significance: A large part of a Muslim's life, symbol of religious unity
Hagia Sophia
definition: the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
significance: Demonstrated Byzantine intelligence, also influenced Russia
"Praying Towns"
Early 1600s
Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized
First cultivator of tobacco in Virginia, husband of Pocahontas
John Rolfe
Owner and controller of a colony, established government and distributed lands
proprietor
Pure Land Buddhism
emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular amond the masses of Chinese society.
William Sherman
union general who destroyed south during "march to the sea" from atlanta to savannah, example of total war
Peaceable cercion
Trying to get European Compliance without going to war
Nullification Crisis
Southcarolinia, led by Calhoun, wanted to nullify tariffs on manufactures
The Missouri compromise
severely criticized the desires of Missouri for the national interest.
Henry Clay's American system did not propose a
national observatory
Lawbook of Manu
definition: guidelines formed based on Hindu beliefs
significance: set of laws to bring order, first ones to be based on religion
Antigonid empire
definition: the area of Macedon and Greece, the smallest of the Hellenistic empires; cities such as Athens and Corinth flourished during the Hellenistic age and cities were overpopulated
significance: center of Greece, most influential
Philip of Macedon
definition: father of Alexander of Macedon, unified the warring Greek city-states
significance: unified Greece
Liudprand of Cremona
definition: an ambassador whom Otto sent on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople in 968, insulted Byzantium and its emperor
significance: strained relationships between the west and Byzantium
Company based on the giving of certificates of ownership (stock) for financial contributions to the company, which in turn can be sold to others
joint-stock company
Company with a royal charter, oversaw the establishment of the Virginia Colony
Virginia Company
Ulysses Grant
an american general and the eighteenth president of the united states (1869-1877). he achieved international fame as the leading union general in the american civil war.
Louis XIV
french ruler who had troops, but didn't send them to his colonies. He let quebec and montreal fend for themselves against the english and their colonies
Sans Souci Club
English tea party stuff, represented luxury, republicans didn't really like it
Alexander Hamilton
secretary of treasury, wanted the US controlled by elites who were were also serving personal greed (tought this would be good)
FDR's Brain Trust
Harry Hopkins- social worker and architect of the New Deal, when FDR goes to Hot Springs the Brain Trust takes over, Louis Brandeis, Felix Frankfurter, Henry Morgan, Rexford Tugwell and Frances Perkins (1st woman in the cabinet)
TR Foreign Policy
wanted a greater east Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere so US can have raw materials and manufacture goods, Go to war w/ Russia for oil and iron ore, Navy parade around the world, Big Stick Policy
system f payment that exchanges goods rather than money is
a barter system
John of Montecorvino
The most active of Roman Catholic missionaries in China
Battle of Little Big Horn
1876
The indians left their reservation and were ordered to return, when they did not return, the indians united under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. The tribal warriors surprised Custer and 264 members of his regiment and killed all of them, this was one of the largest Indian armies ever assembled at one time in the US.
Laborer set to work for an employer for a set period of time, precursor to slavery in the US, fed labor demand of colonial agriculture
indentured servitude
Military Reconstruction Act
it divided the south into five military districts that were commanded by union generals. it was passed in 1867. it ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of martial law
John Smit
Head of Jamestown, ruled with an iron fist, made everyone work to eat
Specie Circular
Due to overextension of credit by the pet banks, Jackson decided to make everyone stop using state printed money. ONly specie could be used as $ now
Herbert Hoover Platform
tax cuts, spending to balance the budget, Public Buildings Act and Hawley Smoot tariff, Happy Talks, Grass roots solution, Emergency Committee for unemployment, vetoes Muscle Shoales (like TVA)
Open Door Notes
Competition for Chinese coast and war, Chinese protest in Boxer Rebellion
State and National Reforms
secret ballot, direct primaries and elections of senators, initiative, referendum, recall, G.I.T., prohibition, women's suffrage, regulation of BB and utilities, workmens compensation, lobbying reform
The Erie canal
set off a canal-building boom in other states
Pope Gregory VII
D: fought lay investiture by issuing a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders
S: limited an Emperor's authority
George McClellan
he was a union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. he defeated lee, at antietam, securing a much needed union victory.
Defeat of the Spanish armada
When Elizabeth slaughtered the Armada, causing spain's downfall as the greatest power of time and bringing england to prominence
____,______-, and _______ became major river-centric shipping centers for agricultural goods
St. Louis, Louisville, New Orleans, and Memphis
Li Yuan (duke of Tang)
minister for Yangdi who took over following Yangdi's assasination, forming the Tang dynasty
John Adams (context of revolution)
Patriot, son of liberty, wrote parts of the declaration of independence
The Royal Proclamation of 1763
Set aside an area west of the Appalachians as Indian Country
Native American tribes experienced a cultural shift before Columbus landed in the New World when
knowledge of the growing of corn moved up from Mesoamerica
The map of the commercial links with canals and railroads as f 1850s shows that the
North had more canals than the South
NY voted to ratify the constitution following
a threat by NYC that it would secede from the state
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