AP US History II Midterm Review 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tanzimet era
1840s-1870s
john calvin
predestination, puritans
Opium Wars
Ming China, 1840s-1850s
Ivan the terrible
expanded russia
adam smith
capitalism capitalism capitalism!
muhammad ali
industrializing ruler of egypt
Toltecs
950-1150, Central American society that migrated from northwestern Mexico. Precursors to the Aztecs, or Mexica.
peter the great
tsar who westernized
Boers
Dutch farmers in South Africa
"Muckrakers"
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Mohandas Ghandi
1869-1948. Major spiritual and political leader of India and the Indian Peace Movement. Known as "Father of The Nation" in India for his defiance of British government and success in civil rights movement. Lead famous Dandi Salt March in opposition of British Salt Tax.
Socrates
470-399 BCE, first major Greek philosopher, interested in ethics and morality. Views recorded by Plato.
muslim gunpowder empires
1450-1750, ottoman mughal safavid
Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
Trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
Alexander dirensky
(1881-1970) A major political leader before and during the Russian Revolutions of 1917.
Weimar Republic
The republic established in Germany from 1919-1933. It was a parliamentary democracy, with elements of a parliamentary government, and elements from a democracy government. This governmental system failed, because it suffered from hyperinflation, war payments owed, and many humiliated by the treaty of Versailles. It was created after the WWI in Weimar, Germany, and was overthrown by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.
Gupta
320-550 CE, second classical empire in India.
New Kingdom
1550-1070 BCE, restored power ater Hyksos, returned to prosperity, restored dominance in Nubia.
domestsic system
like putting-out, lost to industrial revolution
Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
Holding companies
Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
Miller-Tydings Act (1937)
Amended anti-trust laws to allow agreements to resell products at fxed retail prices in situations involving sales of trademarked good to a company's retail dealers.
Monetary policy, fiscal policy
In monetary policy, government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inflation and depression. In fiscal policy, the government uses taxing and spending programs (including deficit spending) to control inflation and depression.
Ohio Idea
1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.
Forest Reserve Act, 1891
First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
Square Deal
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
"Watchful Waiting"
Often said by President Monroe during the U.S.'s isolationism period, when the U.S. was trying to stay out of the affairs of other countries in order to avoid war.
Chivington Massacre
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a friendly Cheyenne village in Colorado.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
John Peter Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
Economist and sociologist.
Plains Indians
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of Mao Zedong, it aimed to help the economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who thought deficit spending would create jobs and stimulate the economy.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Scramble for Africa
When many European countries all rushed into Africa in an attempt to gain lands for themselves.
Mexican-American War
Mexico didn't want us to take Texas.
Taiping Revolution
1850s, led by Jesus's little brother (or so he thought), advocated social reform, land redistribution, and women's rights.
Gospel of Wealth
1889- Andrew Carnegie's idea of philanthropy, the rich helping the poor.
Mehmed the Conqueror
ottoman who captured Constantinope in 1453.
ABC Powers (1899)
Name given to Argentina, Brazil and Chile. They tried to maintain peace in South and Central America.
Adamson Act, 1916
Wilson pushed passage of this act which mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
Pujo Committee
A committee formed to decide the fate of the Philippine Islands after the Spanish-American War.
Versailles Delegation
Led by Wilson, it fought for the inclusion of the 14 Points. Only one to be included was the League of Nations.
Compromise of 1877
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
De Lome Letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. It was played up by the yellow journalists.
Election of 1896: candidates and issues
William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.
Legal Tender cases
The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Extraterritoriality
In the 1920's, China wated an end to the exemption of foreigners accused of crimes from China's legal jurisdiction.
Charles Schwab (1862-1939)
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
Jay Gould and Jim Fiske
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
Horizontal consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
"Robber Barons"
The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Getulio Vargas
Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo ('New State'), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization.
Open Door Policy
1899 policy that all European nations, and the US could trade with China.
Pelopponesian War
400s BCE, civil conflict in the Greek world that was basically Athens versus Sparta. A contest for hegemony caused by tensions over the Delian League. Sparta won, although conflicts continued.
Selective service (1917)
Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.
"Crime of 1873"
Referred to the coinage law of 1873 which eliminated silver money from circulation. Name given by people who opposed paper money.
Civil Rights cases
1883 - These state supreme court cases ruled that Constitutional amendments against discrimination applied only to the federal and state governments, not to individuals or private institutions. Thus the government could not order segregation, but restaurants, hotels, and railroads could. Gave legal sanction to Jim Crow laws.
"Talented Tenth"
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Pago Pago, Samoa
1878 - The U.S. gained the strategic port Pago Pago in Samoa for use in refueling U.S. warships overseas. It was part of building an international military presence.
Election of 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor Alfred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke
Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
Populist Party platform, Omaha platform
Offically named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers. The part was split between South and West.
Mary Ellen Lease
A speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
Loans to the Allies
During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.
Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
James B. Duke
Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
Daniel DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies, "Big Bull" Haywood
DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election.
George Washington Plunkitt
He was head of Tammany Hall and believed in "Honest Graft".
Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
The nation's first woman cabinet member.
Mexico's nationalization of oil
1938 - Mexico nationalized oil fields along the Gulf of Mexico which had been owned by investors from the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies refused to raise the wages of their Mexican employees.
"Relief, recovery, reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Election of 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba
The U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
revolution of 1911
With the death of Empress Dowager Ci Xi, Henry Pu Yi (an infant) became the "last emperor". Followers of Sun Yat-sen launched a revolt. Too weak to form a new government they turned to General Yaun Shigai, who controlled the army. He would serve as president of the new Chinese republic. This revolt is known as the...
Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin
Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds
Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
Mexican Migration to the U.S
In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and a champion of the realist movement in fiction writing.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.
Charles W. Elliot, Harvard University
He was the president of Harvard University, and started the policy of offering elective classes in addition to the required classes.
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.
Knights of Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in sercurities trading.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.
National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)
The chief measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.
Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
U.S. Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary
Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.
Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando
Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.
E. C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress. It gave E. C. Knight a legal monopoly because it did not affect trade.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Election of 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland
Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefitted from the split in the Republican Party.
Fair Labor Standards Act, maxium hours and minimum wage
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
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