AP US History Midterm Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
enforces laws
- - -
Bob Dawes
a famous Swarthmorean
Islamic Berber movement that penetrated sub-Saharan Africa
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities. (p. 407)
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
The “Lost Colony” which represented the first attempt by Britain to colonize the New World.
The extreme northeastern sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk. (p. 551)
1205. Hugh Johnson
Director of the NRA.
China's northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the People's Republic of China. (p. 351)
A major political unit controlling territory or people under a single sovereign authority.
Josiah Wedgwood
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
Glorious Revolution
the revolution against James II
Who came first, Etruscans or Romans
Booker T. Washington
established the Tuskegee Institute
the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.
Golden Horde
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
One who believes in fundamental change in the political, economic, or social system.
Louisa May Alcott
with transcendentalism wrote Little Women
George Washington
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799). (p. 581)
George Creel
Journalist who headed Committee on Public Info. Created propaganda to get people willing to go to war. too good oversold Wilson's ideals - world expected too much
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children.
F. Nietzche
German philosopher, said G-d is dead.
ruled the chinese empire from 140-86 b.c; brought the han dynasty to its peak; expanded the chinese empire; made confusionism the state religion
Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions also have pilgrimage traditions, such as the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. (270)
the state and national govts share powers
Unique language created by blacks that combined English with other African dialects.
Benjamin Franklin
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, agreement, signed on February 2, 1848, between the United States and Mexico that marked the end of the Mexican War (1846-1848). The treaty established the boundary between Mexico and Texas at the Río Grande. The treaty contained a number of additional provisions. One, which guaranteed that Mexican property rights would be respected, was stricken from the final document by the Congress of the United States. In other provisions of the treaty, the U.S. government promised religious freedom for Mexicans in the conquered territory and agreed to restrain Native Americans from crossing the border to raid settlements in Mexico 4: 1825-1865
Archeologists call the region in which the first New World civilizations began
Laissez Faire
The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776).
Quebec Act (1774)
gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom, extended Quebec boundary to Ohio River
virtual representation
british response to America's claim of "taxation without representation" said that each member of parliament represented all the british people
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with with Bantus
new amsterdam
new york- dutch colony founded by peter menuit- 1626 he lands on Manhattan- he payed indians about equivalten of $1000- he payed wrong indians- he payed a tribe who was hunting on the island and - named new amsterdam-1626-1627 dutch rule the island but there are not enough dutchmen to secure this area for the netherlands
1181. "Hooverville"
Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
to bring over from one belief, view, or party to another.
Queen Hatshepsut
the first female ruler known in history
a government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy
counter exchange
2 substances (blood & water) flowing in opposite directions of each other that maximize a gradient for exchange
Lord Balfour
Brit who promised Palestine for the Jews, angered Arabs
"Kennedy legacy"
ideas created by Kennedys that became central part of liberalism; using government to help powerless.
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
me and women agitated for complete end to slavery. Abolitionist pressure ended British transatlantic slave trade in 1808 and slavery in British colonies in 1834. In U.S. the activities of abolitionists were one factor leading to Civil War.
Checks and Balances
Constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate
In the west the Silk Roads terminated in the Turkish port of
16th Amendment
Allowed Congress to levy an income tax
In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottomans survival?
Great American Desert
the area between the Mississippi River and Pacific Coast prior to 1880.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
a legal decision or form of proceeding serving as an authoritative rule or pattern in future similar or analogous cases.
Intermidate Nuclear Forces Treaty*
(RR), 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed treaty to eliminate Soviet and American medium range nuclear missiles, Soviet economy cut back on military, treaty was gain for the West, more critical problem was nuclear testing, first joint reduction, on site inspection for the first time.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret organization in the southern U.S., active for several years after the Civil War, which aimed to suppress the newly acquired powers of blacks and to oppose carpetbaggers from the North, and which was responsible for many lawless and violent proceedings.
Roman Senate
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families.
Anaconda Plan
Lincoln's plan to cut off all routes to the south, essentially placing a stranglehold on imports and exports. If the Union could stop goods from entering southern states and preventing exports, Lincoln thought he could starve the Southerners into surrendering.
Cash Crops
Growing a large amount of something to sell for profit
Baron de Montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
Spanish born in Spain who had moved to the new world; highest and ruling class in Spanish ruled Latin America
Dom Pedro I
aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil
indentured servant
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years. (p. 486)
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Of the following regions, which defied the common pattern of growing Western domination in the 19th century?
Russia and Japan
Eugene V. Debs
leader of the Socialist Party, was arrested for speaking about the freedom to criticize the gov’t
Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually helped the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Sumner-brooks Affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
1312. Atomic bomb
A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.
Missouri Enabling Act
1819- Way to add Missouri as a state.
Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
developed no single centralized imperial authority
In regard to political structure, postclassical India
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton (April 15, 1889 - January 19, 1975) was an American muralist of the Regionalist school. His fluid, almost sculpted paintings showed everyday scenes of the contemporary Midwest, especially bucolic images of pre-industrial farmlands 7: 1934-1941
964. Extraterritoriality
In the 1920's, China wated an end to the exemption of foreigners accused of crimes from China's legal jurisdiction.
The Fireside Chats
Done over the radio in order to restore public confidence of banks.
7. Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
Samuel de Champlain
(c. 1580 - 1635) the "father of New France," was born into a Protestant family around 1580[1] in the Province of Saintonge, lived when young in the town of Brouage, a seaport on France's west coast and made a journey through Canada before, he died in 1635 in Québec. A sailor, he also came to be respected as a talented navigator, a cartographer, and the founder of Quebec City. He was also integral in opening North America to French trade, especially the fur trade.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Line set by British along App. Mtns. that forbade exploration beyond that point. Made colonists unhappy, even though the line had good inentions (protection vs. Indians).
1. Dodge City, Kansas2. Abilene, Kansas3. Cheyenne, Wyoming4. Ogallala, Nebraska
Four famous cow towns
1595. Supreme Court: Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964
Supreme Court required states to draw their congressional districts so that each represented the same number of people. "As nearly as practical, one man's vote . . . is to be worth as much as another's".
Fall of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
This allowed the North to fully cut the South in half; the latter was the last of all South offenses.
644. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking, tariff, homestead, transcontinental railroad
With no Southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressman passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.
Attacks from Indians, shortsighted ruling, and being ignored by the West India Company in favor of Brazil weakened New Netherland.
By when and by whom was New Netherland taken by?
What was the main goal of the Virginia Company?
Trade for gold and other valuable goods was the main goal.
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