AP US History Midterm Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
prohibition
18th ammendment
Thirty years' war
1618-1648
umma
community of the faithful
Matthew Hopkins
"The Witch-Finder General"executed some 230 alleged witches
subservient
Compliant and obedient to authority.
Virtual Representation
representatives in Parliament represented all citizens- colonists didn't believe and wanted their own reprentative
Harvard
First university founded in America
horace mann
brought changes to public education
contraction
In finance, reducing the available supply of money, thus tending to raise interest rates and lower rates.
Most important city in songhay empire?
Gao
Charles II
restored to throne after Cromwell
Impressionalism
French painters like Monet, Renoir, Passarro, art type of "superrealism." Artist sought to cpature the momentary overall feeling, or impression, of light falling on a real-life scene before their eyes. Not exact copies like photographs.
WTO
An international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade. (p. 889)
song dynasty
confucianism, foreigners bad, no trade, merchants lower class
The legendary early Chinese sage-king who order the four seasons and who established uniform weights, measures, and units of time was
Shun
Daniel Webster
Lawyer for dartmouth vs woodward
the territory adjoining water affected by tides
tidewater
Impressments
a. Removal of sailors from American ships by British naval officers b. John Jay's treaty made no mention of impressments or other violations of American maritime rights
corporation
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
untouchables
lowest caste in Indian society who performed undesirable tasks
In 1336 Harihara and Bukka, 2 emissaries renounced Islam, reconverted to Hinduism and founded what kingdom?
Vijaynagara
17th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that established the direct election of senators
Anne Hutchinson
American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643)
ghost towns
Towns left behind after gold-seekers decamped, such as Virginia City, Nevada
Qin
A Chinese dynasty that established the first centralized imperial government in China. Much of the Great Wall of China was built during the rule of this dynasty.
Nationalize
To bring under the ownership or control of a nation, such as industries and land.
Aztecs
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. (p. 305)
Plebian
an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic
12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Huguenots
or French Calvinists, that left Roman Catholic France for the English colonies of North America after the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed them substantial liberties, was revoked in 1685
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
Cossacks
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
jingoism
an intense form of nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy-a cause of the spanish-american war
Roger Williams
Williams arrived in Massachussets in 1631. A literal separatist, he would ultimately leave for Rhode Island after banishment in 1635. Allowed to excape by Governor Winthrop, Williams established Providence, the first permanent Rhode Island settlement in 1636 and the first settlement in the New World to legislate freedom of religion. His work created a society that lived up to his principles of religious freedom and government based on the consent of the people.
extraterritoriality
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. (682)
HMOS
(WJC) care come from large range of doctors and hospitals, large businesses and ogvt, trouble getting health care when needed, managed care sure patients get better, not sicker, he failed to reform nation's healthcare system
hellenic culture
the specific artifacts of the ancients as well as the ideas and ideals of democracy, beauty and balance.
Martin Van Buren
"little magician", NY, Jacksons choice for successor- he won election of 1836, 8th pres., first one born under American flag
Toussaint L'Overture
Haitian slave that led a rebellion against the french and won back Haiti.Tried to re-establish economy and commercial contacts with US and Britain
Victorian Age
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people (711)
Lodge reservations
14 formal reservations put forth by Senator Lodge -reserve right for Congreess to declare war
Zhou Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism, displaced Shang Dynasty; alliances with regional princes and families (feudal system); overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the "Mandate of Heaven"; Mandarin Chinese language; Confucious (philosopher)
Ferdinand and Isabella
"new monarchs", stresses power of monarch and sovereign, and loyalty of all subjects, start Spanish Inquisition- the pope approves it, against Jews and any non-Catholics in Spain
old kingdom
the age of pyramids. when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
harun al rashid
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
Great Migration
was the movement of 1.75 million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the North, Midwest and West from 1910 to 1930
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Edward Hopper
depicted the loneliness of the modern city in his paintings during the early 1900 under the "Ashcan" school 7: 1934-1941
Suez Canal
Canal constructed by Egypt across the Isthmus of Suez in 1869
Selective Service
WWI government term for the draft. Made people feel like they were special.
New York
The Dutch founded New Amsterdam (now New York City) at the mouth of the Hudson River in 1624. The British took control of the region in the Second Dutch War (1664-1667) and converted it into a British proprietary colony.
animosity
a feeling of strong dislike, ill will, or enmity that tends to display itself in action:
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II. (p. 795)
malcolm x
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
1292. Japanese relocation
The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
Species Resumption Act
1875 legislation that promised to put the U.S. back on the gold standard after the Panic of 1873
Fuel Administration!!!
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Installment Plans
Customers could buy goods by making a small down payment followed by additional monthly payments with interest
most prevalent themes of american writers and artists were
western expansion and wilderness
Code Napoleon
System of civil law complied in France in 1804 under the orders of Emperor Napoleon
Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President of the United States, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Indentured servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
1490. Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
John Hancock
Was the first man to sign the Declaration of Independence
"Five Civilized Tribes"
A terms used by whites referring to the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chicksaws, and Semonoles due to their "Americanization" These Indians make remarkable efforts to adopt the ways of the whites and even abandon their our culture, however this was still not good enough for the whites when in 1828 Georgia's government declared their council illegal and asserted its own jurisdictions. These tribes also felt the heavy blows of the Indian Removal Act.
US Sanitary Commission
Mary Ann Bickerdyke had the job to recruit nurses
What took place during Salutary Neglect
Great Awakening, Restoration of Charles, War of Spanish Succession, English Civil War
Mason-Dixon Line
Divides North and South (Pa. to MD and Va.)
chief justice earl warren
Liberal judge; brown v. board of education - declared segregation unconstitutional, Miranda v. Arizona - right to plead the 5th among other rights that must be read to those arrested,
Indian Attack of 1622
Because more native land was being taken away Powhattan's younger brother led attacks against the settlers. The government collapsed 2 years later.
987. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Partition of India and Pakistan
Rioting between Hindus and Muslims broke out in many parts of India at the end of World War II when Britian prepared for India's independence. By early 1947, the Indian National Congress proclaimed a partition of India into two states: one secular but dominated by Hindus, the other Muslim. A mass migration of some 12 million people crossed the border between the new countries.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
France's revolutionary 1789 declaration
of rights stressing liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Problem of the Gold Reserve
(GC2) ppl used cheaper money (silver) and kept sounder money (gold), soon with the repeal of the Sherman SIlver Purchast Act, gold came into the Treasury, this profited bankers
Adams Midnight Appointments
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
380. Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance
The Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
Martin Luther's work had an enthusiastic popular support because
HE attacked the sale of indulgences that the poor could not afford. MANY Christians shared his concern about the corruption of the Church. MANY German princes saw this as a way to break away from the Church. HE supported the translation of the Bible from Latin into the vernacular languages.
Why did puritans move to America?
Fled from England because of religious persecution
what was clinton's stance on affirmative action? what did he mean?
he wanted affirmative action, but he didnt do anything because of decreasing affirmative action support
994. Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus
A leader of the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the lives of a group of California farmers. A muckraker novel.
List the reasons that are in part responsible for the peopling of the Yangtze region in the southern part of China during the Ming era.
Given a great boost by the importation of new crops from the Americas
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