AP US History Notecards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
WHO: Blacks
WHAT:National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans
WHEN: 1909
WHY: Got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Henry Clay
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
WHO: Roosevelt, Taft, Pinchot, Ballinger
WHAT: Taft withdrew from a sale that Roosevelt had done while he was in office that contained water power. Pinchot (the chief of forest service) sued Ballinger with favoritism of people interested in water power. Taft fired Pinchot and then controversy force Ballinger out of his position.
WHEN: 1909
WHY: Widend the gap between Roosevelt and Taft
Elkins Act
WHO: Railroad Companies, Government, and Customers
WHAT: Government could stop rebates because railroads weren't being upfront about it and didn't give them to everybody
WHEN: 1903
WHY: This regulated the railroads rebates and protected people from being ripped off.
17th Amendment
WHO: Voters
WHAT:Amendment where the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures
WHY: It gives more power to the people's vote.
Booker T. Washington
WHO: Former Slave
WHAT:African American progressive who agreed with segregation and asked that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality and respect from the whites; Founded the Tuskegee Insitute.
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: He founded the Tuskegee Insistute and believed that AMs would gradually earn their rights.
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
Gag Rule
adopted by the house of representatives in 1836 and informal rule which remained in force until 1844, antislavery petitions were automatically tabled so that they could not become the subject of debate in the house
54º40 or fight
The 1844 Democratic presidential candidate James K. Polk ran on a platform of taking control over the entire Oregon Territory and used the famous campaign slogan, "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!" (after the line of latitude serving as the northern boundary of Oregon at 54°40'). Polk's plan was to claim and go to war over the entire territory for the United States.
Thomas Paine
Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain.
Roger Taney
(1777-1864) United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens.(Dred Scott Case)
Pendleton Act
1883, enacted civil service reform, said the Civil Service Exam must be taken in order to recieve most government jobs (highest scores got the jobs), banned federal employees from giving campaign money to their party
William Penn
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
15th amendment
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Lincoln Steffens
WHO: a Muckraker for Politics
WHAT:a leading muckraker that was the managing editor at McClure's (a mag known for uncovering social problems). 1903 he published The Shame of the Cities (articles on political corruption; showed the political bribes and violence).
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: He exposed the political corruption in the US.
Carrie Chapman Catt/NAWSA
WHO: Women's Rights Leader
WHAT:was one of the countries first female superintendents; Urged women to join the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Became president of the NAWSA and used the "winning plan" (group to lobby congress, meetings, parades. They weren't "un- lady like". They publicize the roles that they took during the war. She didn't do as radical things as Paul.
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: Fought for women's rights. .
WHO: Populists/ The common man and charitable rich
WHAT:- populists concern is that democracy is threatened by:
1. the growth of large national corporations
2. increasing in equality between the rich and poor
WHEN: Late 19th Century
WHERE: United States
WHY: They restored democracy to the people.
302.Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
John Bartram (1699-1777)
America’s first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Roger Williams
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Charles Cornwallis
A British general, he lost to Nathaniel Green in one campaign. He was humiliated by his defeat in the colonies. He finally lost at the Battle of Yorktown, commonly known as the end of the war, in 1781.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Congressional Reconstruction
The return of 11 ex-Confederates to high offices and the passage of the Black Codes by southern legislatures angered the Republicans in Congress so that they adopted a plan that was harsher on southern whites and more protective of freed blacks.
John Marshall
He served in the Continental Army during the Revolution. In the 1790s he had embraced the Federalist Party. Marshall tossed the Republicans a few crumbs by ruling that the Supreme Court could not compel Madison to deliver Marbury's commission. Then he argued that the Court could not issue a writ of mandamus in its original jurisdiction. The 1st time the court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Stono Rebellion
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
Shay's Rebellion
a rebellion by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays, against Boston creditors. it began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
Credit Mobilier
a construction company that was owned by the Union Pacific Railroad, they used to fraudulently skim off raiload profits for themsleves (1864)
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Slaughterhouse Cases
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions. 1873
Clayton Anti-trust Act
WHO: Woodrow Wilson
WHAT:- gives the federal trade commission act more "teeth"
- exempts unions from because prosecuted as trusts
WHEN: 1914
WHY: Strengthens federal trade commission and was one of Wilson's Legislations
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
WHO: Adkins and Children's Hospital
WHAT:case that debated the law that guaranteed women and children a minimum wage. The question was did the minimum wage law violate the 5th amendment? The decision was no
WHY:This was a victory for the Progressives because it achieved their goal of a minimum wage.
308. Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Primogeniture, entail
These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Primogeniture requried that a man’s real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son. Entail requried that property could only be left to direct descendants (usually sons), and not to persons outside of the family.
Virginia House of Burgesses
A regular assembly of elected representatives that developed in the Virginia colony in the 1630's. The House of Burgesses was split into two chambers in 1650, creating the House of Burgesses and the Governors Council. The House was a bicameral legislature that was a model for our congress.
Hartford Convention
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
Constitutional convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
A member of the Church of England who settled in North America to follow Christian beliefs in a more "pure" way. (p. 206)
First Cabinet
Part of the Executive Branch, Made up of the department heads of the five executive departments, Departments of State, Treasury, and war and the Offices of the Attorney General and the Postmaster General, Give President advice, Thomas Jefferson(Secretary of State), Alexander Hamilton(Secretary of Treasury), Henry Knox(Secretary of War) and Edmund Randolph(Attorney General)
Election of 1912
WHO: Wilson, Taft, TR, Debs
WHAT: Debs = socialists Taft = Republican TR = Progressives Wilson = Democrat
WHEN: 1912
WHY: Wilson won,
336. Justice Samuel Chase
A Federalist judge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary War hero, and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration to the Maryland grand jury. Chase was acquited by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
Indentured servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Robert Walpole
Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
Congress banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. In 1892 congress extended law for 10 more years. In 1902 Chinese immigration restricted indefinitely and not repealed until 1943.
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
The government would take the debt of the nations and the states debt, make a national bank, and tax higher (which was the only one that did not pass through congress)
Gibbons V. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
311. Pickney's Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
battle of little big horn
Sioux leader sitting bull led the fight against general George Custer and the 7th cavalry. The Sioux wanted miners out of the black hills, and had appealed to government officials in Washington to stop the miners. Washington doesn't listen. When custer came to little bighorn rivers sitting bull and his warriors were ready and killed them all!
341. Federalist opposition to the Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they felt Jefferson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.
313. James Wilkinson (1759-1825)
Wilkinson had been an officer in the Continental Army, and later held several positions relating to the Army, such as secretary of the board of war and clothier general to the army. He was one of the Commissioners appointed to receive the Purchase Louisiana from the French, and served as Governor of Louisiana from 1805-1806. He informed Pres. Jefferson of Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, and was the primary witness against Burr at his treason trial, even though Wilkinson was himself implicated in the plot.
317. Rutgers v. Waddington, 1784
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to sue for damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor's Court over the seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. It was the first time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent for the later U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
344. Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
346. Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807)
These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.
338. Treaty of Sam Ildefonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
Voting granted to church members - 1631
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
335. Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
327. Bank war: laws from 1800 to 1865 on banking
These laws moved away from favoring the national bank towards favoring state banks.
/ 81

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online