AP US History Terms 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1636
colony conneticut
"trust"
A large-scale business combination
Jackson Vs. Native American
...
"Seven days"
The peninsula campaign; Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Savage's station, Fraser's farm, and Malern Hill
Brook Farm
Published "The Dial"; Transcendentalist community
savanna
tropical or subtropical grassland, either treeless or with occasional clumps of trees. most extensive in sub-Saharan Africa but also present in South America.
genocide
the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
kiev
trade city for southern russia established by scandinavian traders
Kongo
Central African state that began trading with the Portuguese around 1500; their kings converted to Christianity but the still suffered from the slave trade.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade in "Wealth of Nations"
Tiberius
Gracchus Along with Gaius Gracchus, tribune who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform within the Roman republic; killed on the command of the Senate.
1700s
The 18th century includes what years?
Semitic
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic. (p. 32)
icons
paintings of saints and religious figures
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican President 1877-1881
Notable events: Compromise 1877 (end of Reconstruction), Bland-Allison Act (free coinage of siver)
Nationalism
A political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation; a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe. In the late nineteenth century it hastened the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. In the twentieth century it provided the ideological foundation for scores of independent countries emerging from colonialism.
manor
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. (p. 254)
Irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
North Carolina
Found in 1712, poor, irreligious, democratic, defeated indians
John Hancock
was the prominent American whose experience with the customs commissioners forced many Americans to conclude that parliament had no lawmaking authority over the colonies expect on matters of imperial trade.
order of chinese dynasties after fall of han
things:/
Corrupt Bargain
Clay endorsed John Quincy Adams instead of Jackson. After Adams was elected, Adams chose Clay to be the Secretary of Sate, a coveted position b/c it was a stepping stone to the presidency.
Portsmouth Treaty
(TR) , 1905, Roosevelt and representatives from Russia and Japan work out treaty, Japan takes over Korea, Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize
satire
a literary work that ridicules or criticizes a human vice through humor or derision
Theodor Herzel
known journalist who promoted Zionism and helped lead to the cause
Muckraker
was a person, journalist, author, etc, who exposed scandals and things like that to the public; set up by Roosevelt to pass his reforms
diaspora
A Greek word meaning 'dispersal,' used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found in other places.103
shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
saladin
A Kurdish general who conquered Egypt and Syria in the twelfth century. His capture of Jerusalem precipitated a crusade. He became legendary for his military genius and generosity.
Albany Congress
1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.
USS Maine
a mysterious explosion that killed many American soldiers in Havana Harbor (260 men); was an American battleship; was caused in reality by an accidental explosion inside the ship, and not due to bombs or torpedoes; American's became war-mad, and they blamed the Spanish
Erie Canal
Gov. DeWitt Clinton constructs canal from Lake Erie to Hudson River - most significant waterway
Tahmasp I
shah who replaced Isma'il, drove Ozbegs out again, set restoring power of the dynasty, efforts made to bring Turkic chiefs under control; tried to ring Turkic chiefs under control; transformed them into warrior noble class w/ assigned villages; put persians into court and bureaucracy
depletion
to decrease seriously or exhaust the abundance or supply of:
Federalist Papers
written by Madison, Hamilton, Jay; to get colonies to ratify Constitiution
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
Maxim Guns
this was the first automatic machine gun that gave Europeans a huge advantage in fighting African armies
Representation: virtual vs. direct
Virtual taxation involves officials being elected by the people to represent them, whereas direct taxation means that every person can represent themselves directly in the government.
Land grants
Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines
French and Indian War
Seven Year's War (4th) 1756-1763
Headright System
where companies would give land from the new world to people that were willing to pay for the passage.
footbinding as metaphor
The societal restrictions imposed upon women as families became wealthier, women status lowered
Robert Fulton, steamships
A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America's first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 1927-1976; led the Communists on the Long March; rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China; initiated the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, after antietum. it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern trans-Alpine Renaissance (407,445)
Black Death
Plague that struck Europe in 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure. (p. 395)
Tenochitilan
What was the capital of the Aztec Empire?
Northern Economy
National Banking system to sale bonds established
 
economy boomed during war
amendments
changes in or additions to the U.S. constitution
Chinese Exclusion Act
Barred immigration of Chinese from 1882 until 1946.
Memphis
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
monroe doctrine
warned european to stay out of western hemisphere/ u.s would not interfere in european affairs
Peggy Eaton Affair
Jackson's secretary of war, John H. Eaton, married Peggy Eaton in 1829. They were socially disregarded by Calhoun's wife and Calhoun's friends in the cabinet. Jackson believed that the Eaton affair was Calhoun's plot to discredit him and advance Calhoun's presidential ambitions. Therfore, hurting Jackson and Calhoun's relationship
(Ida M.) Tarbell
A woman journalist who published an attack on Standard Oil Company in McClure's. Her father had been ruined by oil interests.
War of 1812
War with Britain; caused by Macon's Bill No. 2, anti-British sentiments from issues like western indians and economy, and also territorial expansion and prestige for America; Burning of Washington D.C.
results of jays treaty
jay viewed at probritish
treaty was UNPOPULAR w/ citizens
vitalized Dem Rep party(newborn)
Procedures for amendments
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions.
cavalry
formerly, the part of an army made up of soldiers trained to fight on horseback (B.190)
The Arawak
A group of people living among the Orinoco River in modern day venezuela. They began to take over most of south america later on.
Red Scare
Period of hysteria after WW! over the possible spread of Communism to the US; aroused by the Russian Revolution
normalcy
the 1920s were defined as an era of normalcy, despite political and social change, the era was dominated by largely ineffectually, Republican presidents 7: 1934-1941
American industrial revolution
began in 1750s in Britain w/ perfecting textile machines, spread to US
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
provided that federal inspectors visit meatpacking plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation
Treaty of Paris (1898)
Ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million.
National Industrial Recovery Act
(FDR) 1933, focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA, established Public Works Administration and National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US
412. Kitchen Cabinet
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Macon's Bill No
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Henry Clay's American System
Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country's transporation system
citizen genet visit
Edmond Genet comes to stir up public opinions so that US would support france; Washington says no stay out!
205. Constitution - Legislature
One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Supreme Court case that said that only Congress has the power to regulate interstate trade.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1019. Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
What were general cultural changes made in the Postclassical era?
Jainism & Buddhism lost popularity; Hinduism & Islamic traditions dominated after 1000
pg. 925, 918
PRSI
 
 
Martin Luther King Jr.
growing up in an affluent family he emerged as an unprecedented and hugely influential civil rights activist. He caused attempt at civil rights bill and Voting rights act
He came from a religious-christian-perspective that emphasized civil disobedience
revolted in March of Washington and bus sittings and such, and countless other peaceful demonstrations
civil rights movement was really only taken on by governement because of this intellectual movement. King was influenced by Ghandi
 
1979 US embassy hostage in Tehran
a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two US citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamic students and militants took over the Embassy of the United States in support of the Iranian Revolution.
379. Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Spain gave up Florida to the U.S. and the U.S./Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part of Mexico.
when the spanish invaded the aztec empire
many of the subject tribes formed alliances with the spanish
John Ross's Supplement to Treaty of New Echota
John Ross was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee and he drew up a petition asking Congress to void the treaty--a petition he personally delivered to Congress in the spring of 1838 with almost 16,000 signatures
596. Election of 1852: end of the Whig party
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party.
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