AP US History Vocab 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Wang Mang
Land owning noblemen
navigational instrument: a navigational instrument incorporating a telescope and an angular scale that is used to work out latitude and longitude.
An astronomical object is viewed through the telescope and its angular distance above the horizon is read off the scale. The data is then used to calculate the viewer's position.
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
south africa
let whites maintain supperiority
professional oral historians; advisors to the kings
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. (231)
an economic system in which individuals put their money into a business in hopes of making a profit.
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.(p. 62)
Mary Lease
Fiery populist orator; denounced banks, railroads, and middlemen; fmaous for saying, "raise less corn and more hell."
Government supported media designed to make one side seem awful, and the other seem perfect, often told lies
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. (p. 238)
the crusades
military campaigns undertaken by European Christians of the elevneth through fourteenth centuries to take over the Holy Land and convert Muslims and other non-Christians to Christianity
stateless societies
African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states. (p. 333)
Sedition Act
1918, reflected American fears, paranoia about Germans, and perceiving others as a threat
a material object, service, etc., conducive to sumptuous living, usually a delicacy, elegance, or refinement of living rather than a necessity:
A massive stone monument on the Indonesian island of Java, erected by the Sailendra kings around 800 C.E. The winding ascent through ten levels, decorated with rich relief carving, is a Buddhist allegory for the progressive stages of enlightenment. (193)
Inca empire
Powerful South American empire that would reach its peak in the fifteenth century during the reigns of Pachacuti Inca and Topa Inca.
Fair Deal
U.S. President Harry S. Truman's policy of social improvement. Remains significant in establishing a call for universal health care as a rallying cry for the Democratic Party.
President McKinley
the president during the Spanish American War; asked congress to go to war in Cuba
system of government in which all 'citizens' (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. (p. 127)
black hills
mountain range, indians sent out because of gold rush
The Courtier
Castiglione, explains the lifestyle of a proper gentleman, ex.) well-versed in poetry, literature, music, dance, etc.
Persian Empire
defeated new Babylon; huge empire (Egypt to Afghanistan)
Horace Mann
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Name given to English Puritans who refused to participate in the services of the English Church
Muslims that once had much control over Spain; eventually, pushed out of the country, freeing up the money to allow for Columbus's expedition to the New World
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
A social, political, & economic system that dominated all aspects of medevil European life
John Dewey
Professor from Columbia University who believed in "learning by doing", forming the foundation of progressive education.
Vice president accused of treasen and led Western cession
Abraham Lincoln
President during the Civil War, Republican, Anti-Slavery
Empress Wu
Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhism establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state of religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Teapot Dome
(CC), a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Name the Ming emperor who launched commercial expeditions to Southeast Asia
Yung Glo
A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility.
Chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior.
Judicial Review
in Marbury v Madison case Marshall created standard of judicial review, empowering the Supreme Court to rule a federal law unconstitutional and impose its will on the states.
Laissez Faire
(USG) , the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
warfare Use of the relatively new sea weapon was a major aspect of the German naval effort against the Western Allies in World War I; unrestricted submarine warfare was major factor in bringing the United States into active participation.
Lord Nelson
English admiral fought in battle of Trefulger, died, became one of greatest naval heroes.
for slaves the ultimate resistance was
the slave revolt
Stanley, Henry Morton (1841-1904)
British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. Stanley helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State. (p. 732)
Carava routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran
Silk Road
Comstock Lode
a partenership for controling the gold and silver mining in the west
james madison
A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.
Dollar Diplomacy
a type of economic imperialism whereby the U.S sought to insure its investment abroad, particularly in Latin America, by using military power or threat of military power
Ballinger-pinchot affair
public land issue the forced taft closer to the old guard
Alexander Hamilton
Man who argued our government should pay all of our debts at face value
The "New Frontier"
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
a person or thing that succeeds or follows.
Muller v Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
mandate of heaven
In chinese history, the belief the rulers had the gods approval to rule
Franklin's Albany Plan
Plan of defense for colonies from Indian attacks during French and Indian War; proposed one central defense system for the colonies; ultimately did not get approved.
Theravada Buddhism
'Way of the Elders' branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Therevada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods (181)
Insular Cases
(WMc) , These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos. It was congress who had the power
Andrew Jackson
A general and political leader of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. As a general in the War of 1812, he defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans. He was called "Old Hickory." He was elected president after John Quincy Adams as a candidate of the common man, and his style of government came to be known as Jacksonian democracy. He rewarded his political supporters with positions once he became president ( see spoils system). A Democrat, he was widely criticized for expanding the power of the presidency beyond what was customary before his time.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets built missile sites in Cuba, but removed them after naval blockade and negotiations; most dramatic Cold War crisis.
Lewis & Clark 1804
Fort Mandin- Sacajawea assisted, had connections with Shoshone tribe
Federalist Papers
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
Eleanor Roosevelt
the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.
coinage act of 1873
-Largely unnoticed at time;put nation on 'gold only' standard. later called "Crime of 73".
-Meant silver was no longer "free"..coined/added to money supply.
-Result:Deflation not beaten.
265. Sec. of War Knox
A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington’s cabinet.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immigrants who would work for less pay.
Dominion of New England
tried to help colonial defese and bring it under tighter royal control, ended during Glorious Revolution and helped colonists separate more from england
190. Conway Cabal
The name given to the New England delegates in the Continental Congress who tried to wrest control of the Continental Army and the Revolution away from George Washington. Named after Major General Thomas Conway.
"Era of Good Feelings"
after war, was peace, liberty, and progress.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court case in which it was decided that Congress held the power to regulate interstate commerce.
War of 1812/Madison's War
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Haymarket Square
At this location, in May of 1886, a series of events took place that resulted in four dead laborers and a bomb is thrown at the police and one dies then they start firing and six more die. After this, the Knights of Labor were no longer because they were considered to be involved with anarchy. Four are convicted and three are executed.
282. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
The first two political parties. Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
Germanic Invasions
- contributed to the fall of Rome- one group, the Vandals were especially destructive (where the word vandalism comes from- spoke a different language
1239. Election of 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor Alfred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
Bank of the United States
proposed by Hamilton and modeled after the Bank of England; powerful private institution of which the government would be the major stockholder and in which the federal Treasury would deposit its surplus monies; the federal funds would stimulate business by remaining in circulation; would also print urgently needed paper money, thus providing a sound and stable national currency; Jefferson saw no need for such a financial octopus; strict v. loose construction; created by Congress in 1791, chartered for twenty years, located in Philadelphia, was to have a capital of $10 million, one-fifth of it owned by the federal government, people quickly bought stock
Thomas R. Dew
In 1832 he published a review of the celebrated slavery debate of 1831-32 in the Virginia General Assembly, under the title An Essay in Favor of Slavery, which went far towards putting a stop to a movement, then assuming considerable proportions, to proclaim the end of slavery in Virginia.
1043. Manchurian Railroad Scheme
The U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American products into China. It would have allowed the U.S. to corner the China market.
1368. Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.
What is a Joint-Stock Company?
Form of a company where investors buy shares of a stock/ a small fraction of the company; is the most people type of business in modern days
Why did Czar Nicholas II welcome WWI?
It would stop domestic problems and lead to patriotism
What are requirements for Senate? (4)
1. 30 years old
2. citizen for 9 years
3. resident of state
6 year term limit
Which of the following was not a characteristic of the large kinship groups of the Aztecs?
Women were required to work in the fields five days each week.
kidnapping slaves
Open Door Notes
based on Justinian's Code
lack of agreement or harmony
800 CE
Hian period in Japan
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior.
Nicholas Copernicus
Polish monk and mathematician
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession.
Edict of Milan: Constantine adopted Christianity
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the archduke of which empire?
to assign to an inferior position
Southern Whigs who joined the Republicans after civil war, many abolitionists
A political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.
Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows
A naturally evolved network of relations among organisms in a stable environment
128. Jesus of Nazareth
Son of God.
Hoover negotiated with this republic in 1932 and provided for the complete withdrawal of American troops in 1934
Ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
robert weaver
-He was the first African American to serve in a cabinet;
-Served as secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development under Johnson
-showed progression in racial equality.
William Howe
Captured Philly rather than joinging other British columns in NY
Great Trek
the migration of Afrikaners from British-ruled Cpe Colony for fertile land in the north
Iran-Contra Affair
1986: President Reagan authorized the off-the-books sale of stolen weapons from the Pentagon to Iran in order to fund the Nicaraguan Contras; Congress had forbidden him to use government funds to support the Contras; helped keep Iraq from winning the Iraq-Iran War (did not want a Middle Eastern superpower); very illegal (Iran was considered a terrorist state) and almost caused Reagan to be impeached.
Christian thought was linked to plutonic philosophy through his work...
St. Augustine
Trent Affairs
Union captures Brit ship w/ Confederacy diplomats; outcry for war, prisoners released
In law, the failure to take responsible care, resulting in injury to another person.
the community of believers in Islam, which transcends ethnic and political boundaries.
The initials of the international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade.
ottoman empire
(1450-1922) osman bay founded it, capital=istanbul, christians and jews allowed, churches to mosques, janissaries=children fighting warriors, selim 1 expanded empire with a strong army, safavids were greatest enemy
Jacksonian Democracy
The concept of Jacksonian Democracy glorified the equality of all adult white males--the common man. It disliked anything that smacked of special privilege. It rejected the elitist view that only the proven "best" men should be chosen to manage public affairs
the Turkic language spoken by the Kirghiz people
Shay's Rebellion
uprising by poor farmers in Massachusetts who were upset about debt. rebellion was crushed.
Salutary neglect
Salutary neglect was an undocumented, though long-standing, British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that "if no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish." King George III ended this policy through acts such as the Stamp Act and Sugar Act, causing tensions within the colonies. 1: 1607-1763
The ancient Sumerian city of Assur came under Assyrian control by about 2000 BC, serving as the capital of the Assyrian Kingdom.
Martin Van Buren
1837-1841, Democrat, Crown Prince, WP - Webster, Anti Mason - Harrison
hunting and gathering
Means of obtaining subsistence by human species prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization.
Yellow Press
also called yellow journalism, a term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time of the Spanish American war. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
Francisco Pizarro
Led conquest of Inca Empire beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to Spanish.
Shah Ismail
Founder of Safavid Empire in 1501, ruled until 1524; made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash;
A unified country under a ruler which share common goals and pride in a nation. The rise of the nation-state began after England's defeat of the Spanish Armada. This event sparked nationalistic goals in exploration which were not thought possible with the commanding influence of the Spanish who may have crushed their chances of building new colonies.
Open Door Policy
Foreign policy that stated all countries should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights
Panic of 1837
Caused when wildcat speculation was curbed and the BUS destroyed and crops fail
Townshend Acts
1767- taxed all import duties, British soldiers are tried in admiralty courts not colonial courts
Incan Empire
Formed in present day Peru. Expanded out as far south as Chile and as far North as Ecuador. Best known for their enourmous wealth.
Maximilien Robespierre
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution; his execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Stamp Act Congress
1765- brought together 27 delegates from 9 colonies- asked King to repeal Act
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
works for an expert to learn a trade
Great britian had a policy of _______ towards germany
Martin Luther King Jr.
(LBJ), Southern Christian Leadership Conference, freedom riders, sits ins, based philosophy of Gandhi,
Iran Contra Affair
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
Which one of the following factors was not one of the foundations of Mali's power?
(pg. 491)
Judiciary Act
This act established in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Right of deposit
Under the Treaty of Paris, the colonies were able to store exports in New Orleans before being shipped off to sea.
Enumerated Goods
goods that were allowed to be exported had to stop in England for a tax before continuing on
The Great Society
-LBJ's domestic policy that dealt with poverty and education.
-head start
Election of 1828
The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.
Colonial North America
America during the time that England ruled
Henry George
A radical philosopher who wrote one of the best-selling nonfiction works in America; he tried to explain why poverty existed among the wealth created by modern industry
Roman Peace
What do you call that Roman period, where: was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the powerful Roman Empire in the first and second centuries AD. Since it was established by the Emperor Augustus it is sometimes called Pax Augustus. ...
George Wallace
racist governor of AL who refused to integrate schools & businesses in his state
it forbade the president from dismissing federal officials w/o the senates approval
tenure of office act
Good Neighbor policy
Herbert Hoover created a policy in South America. What is this policy? :D
Indian Removal Act
The Indian Removal Act is also known as Jackson's Native American Policy plan was to forcible remove Indians to Indian Territory in the West. Since many of the Indian nations had already lost so much of there land and the whites still wanted what they had the Supreme Court decision in 1823 declaring that American Indians couldn't hold title to the land in the United States. Indians will setup a system in which they will prevent the selling of any more land to government officials. Georgia legislature claimed Cherokee council illegal and claimed jurisdiction over both the tribe and its land. Cherokee will take this to the Supreme Court in which Chief Justice Marshel will rule in favor with the Cherokee. Whites will send in the U.S. Army had forcible remove them from their lands.
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963: a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Commonsense Book of Baby & Child Care & Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
Dr. Benjamin Spock
time order 3
britian attemps to gain revenue by a tax on papers and documents creating a colonial uproar
94. slavery vs. serfdom
were not property themselves and could not be sold apart from the land which they worked. Serfdom is the forced labour of serfs, on the fields of the privileged land owners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields.
First Protective Tariff
1816 (JM) In 1816, Congress passed the nation's first protective tariff. It was designed to protect textile factories, because the British were dumping cloth in the United States at bargain prices in their attempt to regain markets they had lost during the War of 1812.
Which of the following statements about interclan relationships is most accurate
inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
Khubilai Khan's military and imperial pursuits
all of chna vietnam, cambodia, burma
Burning of Washington (1814)
during the War of 1812, a British armada ship sailed the Chesapeake Bay and burned the white House. The attack came in reponse to the American burning of Toronto. it inspired francis Scott Key's "Star spangled Banner."
French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part of the Seven Years' War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.
Norris - La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
Act passed in 1932 that outlawed contracts and forbade the federal courts to issue injunctions to restrain strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing
What were the central cities like at the end of teh 20th century?
80% of Americans lived in Metropolitan areas. Suburbs became urban corridors, sprouted edge cities, malls, low income populations, rising rates of homelessness and crime, declining schools, urban decay until a revival turned things around and cities became safer, mor convenient and culturally vibrant.
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