AP US History Vocab 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Isaac Newton
...
Tokugawa Bakufu
tent government
Quebec
France's 1st permanent colony
Sputnik
World's first artificial satellite, launched by Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. Weighing 83.5kg(184lb) and with a radio transmitter_______1 circled the Earth for several months
John Wesley
founded the Methodist church
S Carolina from start
slave society
1517
Year the Protestant Reformation began
humanists (renaissance)
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. (p. 408)
Roger Williams
challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from state, as the state would corrupt the church
Teotihuacan
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600. (p. 300)
buffalo chips
Dried dung used for fuel
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. (See also Timbuktu.) (p. 375)
creoles
The colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all non-native peoples.
Bureau of Corporations
Established during Theodore Roosevelt's first administration, the Bureau of Corporations was granted the power to investigate unfair business practices.
Carnegie:
Steel king. Used Vertical Integration (controlling all aspects of manufacturing
relics
a surviving memorial of something past.
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918. (p. 774)
Russel Conwell
Delivered the lecture "Acres of Diamonds" thousands of times
Lydia Marie Child
Connected to the abolitionist movement.
Goes with her husband to an abolitionist rally and wasn't allowed to come into the convention and speak.
Starts to write and connects slavery and women's lack of rights.
sharecropping
A system in which black laborers rented plots of land and payed their white landlords in either a fixed rent or a share of their crop.
Gujarat
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabitants are called Gujarati. (p. 380)
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Franz Kafka:
(1883-1924) The Trial, The Castle, short stories-portray helpless people crushed by very hostile forces.
scholasticism
relying on reason rather than faith; introduced through the scientific ideas of Ancient Greeks through contacts with the Islamic and Byzantine Empires
Qing
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Mahdi
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
Harappan India Traded with who...
Mesopotamia & Egypt
meritocracy
an elite group of people whose progress is based on ability and talent rather than on class privilege or wealth.
square deal
roosevelts view that you balance interests relative to the public good
President during the Era of Good Feelings
Monroe
Bill Clinton
late 20th century, first Dem. President since FDR to be elected to a 2nd term, presidency was marked by economic expansion & the 1st balanced federal budget in 30 years, impeached by House of Rep. on perjury & obstruction of justice but acquitted by Sen.
Wildcat Banks
The banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States' response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks.
Energy Crisis
(RN), following Yom Kippur War, so they planned to use Alaskian pipeline, but eventually went back to foreign
Personal Liberty Laws
1830's-40's, these laws were designed to protect free blacks, freedmen, and fugitive slaves by effectively nullifying the Fugitive Slave Law without actually invoking the doctrine of nullification, which is unconstitutional.
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)
Delta
A marshy area where a river splits into smaller streams
Samuel Adams
one of the most outspoken proponents of non-importation pact, encouraged street mobs to involve merchants in the boycott, including those loyal to the crown
Radical Republicans
(AJohn) , Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Tlacaelel
Advisor to Aztec rulers from 1427 to c. 1480; had histories of Mexico rewritten; expanded cult of human sacrifice as effective means of political terror.
The Huns
warrior nomads who built their own imperial confederacy in central europe and invaded europe in 270 CE from Europe/ Russia to Manchuria
of the settlements of the other european powers in 1800, the one most crucial to american trade was
new orleans
Legitimate Trade
Exports from Africa in the nineteenth century that did not include the newly outlawed slave trade. (p. 654)
a mountain range that forms the northwest border of India
Hindu Kush
Scottish Presbyterians
one group of Puritan American settlers who were Calvinists
common sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Marbry vs. Madison
Supreme Coourt case that established judicial review
elkins act 1903
..., sponsored by President Theodore Roosevelt, provided for the regulation of interstate railroads. The act forbade rebates or other rate reductions to shipping companies. Railroads were not allowed to offer rates different from the published rates.
Safety-Valve Theory
Theory that the frontier had always served as a a safety-valve for our society
The Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
hierarchy
any system of persons or things ranked one above another.
Citizen Genet
French minister to the US, broke rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to Americans
What organization helped end apartheid in South Africa?
The African National Congress
Jomo Kenyatta
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
Demographic Transition
A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)
Non Intercourse Act
1809 (TJ), 1809 law that allowed Americans to trade with all nations except Britain and France.
Eli Whitney
- inventor (invented the cotton gin in 1793)
*refueled the cotton and slave industries
Bush v. Gore
a United States Supreme Court case heard on December 11, 2000. In a per curiam opinion, by a vote of 7-2, the Court held that the Florida Supreme Court's scheme for recounting ballots was unconstitutional, and by a vote of 5-4, the Court held that no alternative scheme could be established within the time limits established by Florida Legislature.[1]. The per curiam opinion was argued on the basis of Equal Protection.[2]
Ur
an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River
strict constructionist
Congress can do waht is needed, but without authorization can not do what is desirable
Proprietary colony
When one or more private land owners retain rights that are normally the privilege of the state, and in all cases eventually became so
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who, with his excess of zeal, rounded up suspects totaling about six thousand; given the nickname "Fighting Quaker", later called the "Quaking Fighter"

Federalist Papers
are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution
Ulysses S. Grant
A Union general in the Civil War
- U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Jefferson and the federal courts
a. Distrusted the federal courts because they were dominated by federalists b. Increased distrust with the lame duck administration (see key terms) and the judiciary act of 1801 & resented the midnight judges (see key terms) c. Jefferson therefore replaced the new federal marshals and attorneys with republicans and dismissed some federal justices d. Abolished judges jobs in order to get rid of their jobs (since they were promised their job for life) e. 1802- he repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801
711. Legal Tender cases
The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).
Chief Crazy horse
a Sioux that led a sneak attack against Custer in a famed battle
Locating the nation's capital
- B/c Hamilton's Economic plan begins to pay for states' debts a little TOO late (most Southern states had already paid off their debt), the gov't promises to build a new nation's capital closer to the South.
What was the Stone Age also referred to as?
the Paleolithic age
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the South greatly. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
GEORGE W BUSH
supports tax cuts and the patriot act; invades Afghanistan
380. Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance
The Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
When was the capital city of Japan moved? And to where?
In 710 in Nara.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
623. Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery).
638. Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens
Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
Old-Immigration - Irish and Germans
2 million left becaus of the potatoe famine, they wer discrminated against because they were catholic, competed w/Africans for jobs,considered the low of the low, came w/families and spoke english, first big group to come in the 1st half of the 1880s
Germans left becasue of the economic hardships and REVOULUTION, one million came in the second wave of the 1850s, most moved to the west and started farms, they were strong supports of education, but they opposed slavery, settled in Cincinnati
Why did many colonial people fight with the Allies in WWI?
They hoped their service would help them gain independence
what 6 things does state gov't provide when involved with economy?
1. tax incentives to corporations
2. offer larger infrastructure development
3. build freeway system to the plant and allow easier connectivity for export of product.
4. subsidized labor training
5. low interest loans
6. relaxed regulations
369. War of 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence
The U.S.’s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America’s access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
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