AP World African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Demography
The study of population.
Griots
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Yoruba
City-states developed in northern Nigeria circa 1200 C.E.; Ile-Ife featured artistic style possibly related to earlier Nok culture; agricultural societies supported by peasantry and dominated by ruling family and aristocracy.
Juula
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry trade throughout Mali Empire; eventually spread throughout much of west Africa.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. Islam was mainly used to reinforce the concept of kingship(A Royal Cult), and much of the population never converted.
Hausa
Peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions. Largest City state at Kano.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. Timbuktu, Sundiata, Griots, juula, Mansu Musa, (GOLD and lots of it) might also come to mind. Was after Ghana Empire but before Songhay Empire.
Benin
A powerful city-state formed around the 14th century; was not relatively influence by the Europeans despite coming into contact with the Portuguese'; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century( OBAS) Founded by Ewuare the Great
Oba
title for the king of Benin
Sofala
A seaport village in eastern Mozambique in the 1300s an important trading center for the gold miners of Great Zimbabwe
Sahara
The world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa.
Almoravids
A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of norther Africa; controlled gold trade across the Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076 C.E.; moved southward against African kingdoms of the savanna and westward into Spain.
Great Zimbabwe
Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between the Zambezi River and Limpopo River; developed after 9th century; featured royal courts built of stone; created centralized state by the 15th century; king took title of Mwene Mutapa.
Luba
modified the older system of village headmen to a form of divine kinship in which the ruler and his relatives were thought to have a special power that ensured fertility of people & crops in Katanga
Fort Jesus
Early 1600's barracks found in Mombassa( on the Zenj Coast). Was a Christian and Portugese thing, but then Omani sultans take it over in 1696. in the 1700's Portugese tried to recapture it, but failed.
Amharic
the dominant and official language of Ethiopia, was actually first used in the 13 and 14th centuries.
Takrur
Kingdom that was in northern Mali, declared it's independence from Mali, was located near the Senegal River at the same time Ghana was at the height of its power.
Ibn Batuta
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records, providing historians with much information about the Saharan trade
Oduduwa
YORUBA (IFE) one of OLODUMARE's two sons, saw OBATALA sleeping and got the board mask and chicken and set it free on earth. it scratched up 16 mounds of dry ground and became the 16 kingdoms and the first one was the kingdom of IFE(YORUBA), CREATION MYTH WHATEVER PROBABLY doesn't matter
askia
Ruler adopted name for the muslim leader of the Songhai Empire after the death of Sunni Ali. Best was Muhammad the Great.
mirab
hole(niche) in wall, the direction of mecca
Sahel
The extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; a point of exchange between the forest to the south and northern Africa.
Almohadis
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Sahara Africa.
Sharia
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life.
Ifiqiya
The Arabic term for eastern North Africa.
Edo
a member of a west African people living in the tropical forest region of southern Nigeria, founded Benin kingdom with Ewuare the Great
Djenne
West African city that became a center of learning and culture, conquered by Mansa Musa. Known for it's libraries and universities. Also later by Songhay leader Sunni Ali.
Bantu Migration
the movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
King Lalibela
Ethiopian king and monarch of zagwe dynasty who directed a remarkable building project in which 11 great churches were sculpted from rock into the ground
Muhammad the Great
Extended boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century.
Kumbi Saleh
Capital of empire of Ghana; divided into two adjoining cities: one for the king, court, and indigenous people, one for the merchants, scholars, and religious leaders.
Pygmies
One of few pure hunting societies left in Africa following Bantu migration.
Ewuare the Great
Was the greatest warrior legend andand the most outstanding Oba in the history of the Benin Empire, "it is cool, or the trouble has ceased, and as a result the war is over." The title symbolizes an epoch of reconciliation, reconstruction and the return of peace among the warring factions in Benin between 1435-1440 AD
Manding Bory
Son of Maghan Kon Fatta and Namandje Kamara; half-brother and best friend of Sundiata; (aka Manding Bakary)
Sunni Ali
Leader of Songhai that drove out the Berbers and built the largest empire in West Africa by his death in 1492, conquered Timbuktu and Djenne, which gave Songhai control of trade; focus on trading empire , was very ruthless even with fellow Muslims who got in his way. Line of leaders after him were called "askia"
Bantu
a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa
Mansa Musa
King of the Mali empire in West Africa from 1312 the 1337, is known mostly for his fabulous pilgrimage to Mecca and for his promotion of unity and prosperity within Mali, also brought the attention of Muslim world to Mali. Also constructed the Great Mosque of Jenne during his time.
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