AP World From Human Prehistory to Early Civilizations Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Loess
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Dasas
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Aryans
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Nineveh
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Yu
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Huanghe River
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Ganges River
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Ten Commandments
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Rosetta Stone
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Linear A
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archaic cultures
hunting-and-gathering groups dispersed over the American continents by 9000 b.c.e
Axum
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Mero in first century C.E.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity.
pyramids
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs
Potter's Wheel
a technological advance in potterymaking; invented c. 6000 b.c.e.; encouraged faster and higher-quality ceramic pottery production
Pastoralism
A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies
polis
city-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800-400 b.c.e.
Natufian complex
Preagricultural culture; located in present-day Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon; practiced the collection of naturally present barley and wheat to supplement game; typified by large settlement sites
Sumerians
people who migrated into Mesopotamia c. 4000 b.c.e; created first civilization within region; organized area into city-states
culture
combinations of the ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction
ayllus
Housholds in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor
pharaoh
Title of kings of ancient Egypt
Indus River
The earliest Indian civilization, dating back to 2500 B.C.E., began in the valley of this river in the northwestern part of the subcontinent of south Asia.
Sumerian City-States
Expamples - Ur, Uruk, Lagash
Chiefdom
Widely diffused pattern of social organization in the Americas; featured chieftains who ruled from central towns over a large territory including smaller towns or villages that paid tribute; predominant town often featured temples and priest class.
Anthropologist
Scientist who studies the physical characteristics and cultures of humans and their ancestors.
Neolithic Revolution
The succession of technoligical innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of seditary agriculture between 8,500 B.C.E and 3,500 B.C.E.
Hittites
An Indo-European people who entered Mesopotamia circa 1,750 B.C.E.; destroyed the Babylonian Empire; swept away circa 1,200 B.C.A.
ball games
Ritual elements of many American cultures; played on formal courts; religious significance required that losing teams pay penalty of forfeiture of goods or their lives
polyandry
Marriage practice in which one woman had several husbands; recounted in Aryan epics
Narmer
First Pharaoh of Egyptian Old Kingdom; ruled c. 3100 b.c.e.
Kush
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 b.c.e.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
Jericho
Early walled urban culture site based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israeli-occupied West Bank near Jordan River
Akhenaton
Egyptian pharaoh of the new Kingdom; attempted to establish a one-god religion, replacing the traditional Egyptian pantheon of gods.
C.E.
Common Era. A designation of dates that come after the year 1 according to the Christian Calendar. This designation corresponds to A.D. or Anno Domini.
Shifting Cultivation
An intermediate form of ecological adaptation in which temporary forms of cultivation are carried out with little impact on the natural ecology; typical of rain forest cultivators.
Minoans
A civilization that developed on the island of Crete around 1600 B.C.E.; capital was at the city of Knossos.
Lugal
Literally "big man", what we would call a king, emerged in Sumer in the 3rd millennium B.C.E.
B.C.E.
Before the Common Era. A designation of dates that preceded the year 1 according to the Christian Calendar. This designation corresponds to B.C. or Before Christ.
Lascaux
A cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings.
Ideographic
Character or figure in a writing system in which the idea of a thing is represented rather than its name.
patriarchal
societies in which women defer to men; societies run by men and based on the assumption that men naturally directed political, economic, and cultural life.
Chav'n Culture
Appeared in highlands of Andes between 1800 and 1200 b.c.e.; typified by ceremonial centers with large stone buildings; greatest ceremonial center was Chav'n de Huantar; characterized by artistic motifs
horizon
Archeological term for a period when a broad central authority seems to have integrated a widely dispersed region
Homo habilis
"Handy Man" - Arguably the first species of the Homo genus to appear. First human ancestors to truly utilize stone tools.
Sargon I
Ruler of the city-state of Akkad; established the first empire in Mesopotamia around 2400 BCE.
Cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets.
Eddubas
"tablet house" located as part of a ziggurat complex.
Animism
A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions.
Bronze Age
From about 4,000 B.C.E. when bronze tools were first introduced in the Middle East, to about 1,500 B.C.E., when iron began to replace it.
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by Toltecs circa 1,000 C.E. and ruled by Toltec dynasties; architecture featured pyramid of feather Serpent (Quetzalcoatl).
Matriarchal
Relating to a social system in which the mother is head of the family.
Polygamy
The system of having more than one spouse at a time.
Neolithic Age
New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 b.c.e; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished
Epic of Gilgamesh
Recorded Sumerian story in which king Gilgamesh travels with his friend Enkidu. Ultimately the goddess Siduri tells Gilgamesh to "live in the moment," and to learn to enjoy every minute of life. This becomes the Sumeria view of life. The first literary epic in Western Civilization; written down circa 2,000 B.C.E.
Yahweh
The Hebrew name for God. In Hebrew, a language without vowels, the name is Yhwh. Yhwh is also the root word for "existence" in the Hebrew language. It was later translated to Latin as Jhvh which gave rise to the word Jehovah.
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
Species of genus Homo that disappeared at the end of the Paleolithic period. Competed directly with Homo sapiens.
Aztecs
Also known as the Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that used political anarchy after the fall of the Toltecs to penetrate into the sedentary agricultural zone of Mesoamerican plateau; established empire after 1325 around shores of lake Texcoco.
Homo sapiens sapiens
The humanoid species that emerged as the most successful at the end of the Paleolithic period.
Tigris - Euphrates Rivers
Rivers that occupied the Fertile Crescent and served as the homeland for the world's first organized civilization.
Slash and Burn Agriculture
A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators; forest floors cleared by fire then planted.
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