AP World History - Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Salem
Massachusetts
Refutes
to argue against:
anti-trust
preventing mergers between corporations
massacre
the unnecessary, indiscriminate killing of a large number of human beings or animals, as in barbarous warfare or persecution or for revenge or plunder.
Sufis
mystics within Islam... responsible for expansion of Islam in southeastern Asia
Capitalism
Economic system with private/ corporate ownership/ competitive market
Puritans
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.
John Rockefeller
Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
charles 2
started royal colonies in america
cro-magnon
A prehistoric European population of modern humans (Homo sapiens) known from fossils, paintings, sculptures, and other artifacts.
The Union's establishment of the National Banking System...
a. Led to the issuance of depreciated paper money
b. Established the gold standard in the Us
c. Resulted in the reestablishment of the Bank of the United States
d. Lasted only during the Civil Wa
e
detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Emperor Yongle
Chinese Emperor during Zhenghe's exploration
Francis Key
Washington lawyer who wrote Star-Spangled Banner
"cowboy diplomacy"
TR's resolution of international conflicts with risk, force and or military.
isolationism
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Spanish colonial possesions in Mesoamerica: included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs
New Spain
Vizier
Head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan.
Middle Ages
Period after pre-classical era after Roman Empire fall
Election of 1836
Hand-picked sucessor for the Democratic party was Martin Van Buren. The Whig party nominated 3 candidates (Lawson, White, and Harrison) and so the election was thrown into the House of Representatives but Martin Van Buren was still elected. He was the first American born president nicknamed Old Kinderhook ("Ok").
"kitchen debate"
was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since Nixon focused on technological luxuries.
Charles Darwin
Biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Results of Awakening
Killed "dead dogs"; more denominations; more missionary work; more colleges; 1st mass movement to "unify"
1912
when did the last manchu emperor abdicate
lebensraum
living space - Hitler's idea that Germany needed to expand.
Romanization
The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. Romans did not seek to Romanize them, but the subjugated people pursued it.
Second Triumvirate
the political alliance of Octavius, Marc Antony and Lepidus that came to power after the death of Caesar; ended when Octavius declared; himself emperor; marks the end of democracy in Rome
Aztecs
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. (p. 305)
second great awakening
Religious revivals between 1800-1840 that was a reaction against rationalism. It lead to rise of major reform movements and utopian/religious sects like the Shakers, Mormons, Millerites et al. Encouraged others to see the sin of slavery. Baptists and Methodists groups also rose.
business cycle
Recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth, then back to hard times and a repetition of the sequence. (p. 615)
Yaroslav
Last of great Kievan monarchs; issued legal codification based on formal codes developed in Byzantium. (p. 367)
George Washington
1st President of the United States
 
 
 
 
261. Vice-president John Adams
 
 
 
 
A Federalist, he had little say in Washington’s administration.
Colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh that mysteriuosly disappeared in the 1580's
Roanoke
shard
a fragment such as broken earthenware, glass or shell
Roosevelt Corollary
This addition to the Monroe Doctrine was "necessitated" by Germany's attack on Venezuela, and the imminent danger of European intervention in the debt-ridden "banana republics" in Latin America. To the European nations, it said "we shall intervene to prevent you from intervening."
Lech Walesa
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
King Mob
Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy
Simon Bolivar
Creole military leader who fought for Colombian independence between 1817 and 1822
St. Petersburg
Capital city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
Jackie Robinson
first African American to play in Major League Baseball, marks beginning of Civil Rights movemnt
Glorious Revolution
event in England that dethroned James II and throned William III- caused the collapse of the Dominion in the colonies
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Victorian Age
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people (711)
Attrition
Gradual wearing down; in the case of warfare, through high casualty rates
Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts, passed in 1774, were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.
H. Truman
Elected Vice president in 1944; 33rd President, after FDR's death; led the U.S. through the end of World War II and beginning of the Cold War
Pluralism
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
Citizen Genet
French minister to U.S. who opened appealed to the American people to support French Revolution despite Washington's proclamation of neutrality
536. Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
Royal Veto
A royal veto was when legislation passed by the colonial assemblies conflicted with British regulations. It was then declared void by the Privy Council. It was resented by the colonists but was only used 469 times out of 8563 laws.
Two millionaire partners who concocted a plot to corner the gold market. They bid the price of gold up, while scores of honest businesspeople were driven to the wall.
Fisk & Gould
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
1932, Hoover gave money to financial institutions during Depression; stayed away from direct relief
Adolf Hitler
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
260. President George Washington
He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
Daniel Shays
a farmer who organized and led what became known as Shays' Rebellion because they got an unfair parcel of land and were forced to pay unfair taxes.
Tripolitan War
Conflict in 1801 when the pasha of Tripoli cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate, lasting four years, after which a treaty was reached for the sum of $60,000 to ransom captured Americans.
Mahabharata and Ramayana
What two great Indian epics commonly potrayed women as weak willed and emotional creatures?
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
most-favored-nation status
A clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories. (p. 686)
Woodrow Wilson
American President during WWI - had 14 point plan - key figure in League of Nations
trail of tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
The French
Who was forced out of Algeria after WWII?
483. Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Hitler ruled as a _____but was supported by many of the Germany people. He began to ____the terms of th Treaty of Versailles. He first began with ______the Rhineland between Germany and France. He then united Germany with ____, and took over teh ______. T
dictator;undo; remilitarizing; austria; sudetenland; munich; appease; czecholslavakia
What is US exceptionalism?
The belief that their superior democratic values created an immunity to other nation's corruption and chaos
the federalist papers
a series of essays written in support of the Constitution to build support for its ratification
London Naval Conference 1909
Conference held in London to discuss disarmament and review the treaties of the Washington Conference. Representatives from Britain, U.S., France, Italy, and Japan agreed to regulate submarine warfare and to place limits on new construction of cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and other warships
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South.
Rowlatt Act
an act passed in 1919 that allowed the British ruling government to jail any protester without trial for a maximum of two years; sparked the Amritsar Massacre
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family. (p. 493)
beaux arts
A style of urban design that sought to combine the best elements of all the classic architectural styles.
96. Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
Lowell Textile Mill System
a mill system where young women were employed and lived in dormitories
battle of horseshoe bend
fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
The Stamp Act
Put a tax on legal documents and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and even dice. All of those items had to carry a stamp that the tax had been paid. This act led to riots in NYC, Newport, and Charleston.
705. Liberal Republicans: Carl Schurz, Horace Greeley
Schurz and Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reform, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariffs, and were lenient toward the South.
Salem witchcraft trials
In the summer of 1692, a mass hysteria took place in which many colonists (primarily women) were convicted and executed for being witches. Because they were experiencing feelings of powerlessness and insecurity, many Puritans found in witchcraft an explanation for the disorder and change around them.
Temple mound towns of the Mississippi Valley
served as elaborate ritual funerals, hierarchical society, social and political organization, elite burial, residence for chiefs, and temples. Cahokia was largest mound town.
JFK as the first "television president"
image speaks louder than words - American people didn't care about policies they just wanted to watch the American royalty, aka the Kennedys. Americans came to feel that they knew him and his family personally.
through the efforts of Confucius the literary works of the Zhou period
became the core texts of traditional chinese education
Richard Henry Lee
What role did he play at cont. congres?
Called for the US to get their independence from Great Britain.  His resoltion led to the creation of the Declaration of Independence.
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