AP World History 28 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
North Carolina
lawless squatters
to get rid of
agreeably tolerant; permissive; indulgent:
physically interfering with a society's ability to move goods across its borders
Date: de-Stalinization in Russia; Egyptian nationalization of Suez Canal
spoils system
essetially, politicla patronage/ public offices went to political suppporters during jacksons pres/came into general use when jackson's friend senator william marcy declared in 1832 ,"to the victor belongs the spoils of the enemy."/ gradually became associated with corruption and it was modified when congress passed the pendleton act in 1883 establishing the civil service commission
Transportation Revolution
river traffic, roadbuilding, canals, rise of NYC
scottish calbinist- they didnt like thow much catholic influince it had in its ceremonies- ot far enough in reform to be protestant- they were called puritans because the protestants wanted to purify the anglican church
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian Kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
That the Southern states were "conquered provinces" that had completely left the Union and were therefore at the mercy of Congress for readmission was the view of
A) War Democrats.
B) the Supreme Court.
C) President Lincoln.
D) President Johnson.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Monroe Doctrine
1823 established diplomatic relations with five new nations of Central/South America; Chile, Per, La Plata, Colombia, and Mexico. US is first country to recognize them. Doctrine states that the US would consider any foreign challene to the sovereignty of existing American nations an unfriendly act.
Albert Gallatin
He was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.
New type of bureaucrat; intensely trained and engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore and offices of governments following world war two.
British Raj
British political established in India; developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church
Alexis Romanov
Descendents of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952
Fabric made by women during American Revolution as a form of protest against England
Horatio Gates
General Burgoyne was forced to surrender his forces at Saratoga to the American general Horatio Gates.
International tourism
The temporary movement of people between nations
A state of balance between competing forces or interests.
John Forbes
Captures fort Duquesne (after ____ failed); named Pittsburgh after Pitt
what territory did japan seize during worl war ii
Process of wrapping young girls feet to stop growth, led to crppiling women for life
to renounce or relinquish a throne, right, power, claim, responsibility, or the like, especially in a formal manner
Jacques Dessalines
Was the successor to Toussaint L'Overture and his lieutenant during the Haitian Revolution; formally declared the former colony of St. Dominique to be the new independent state of Haiti.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
horace mann
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
Russian Orthodoxy
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments. (p. 366)
creole elites were
prepared to separate from spain
297. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
American painter, most famous for painting the portrait of Washington which was copied for the one dollar bill.
People living in new world colonies born in spain
to support by a buttress; prop up.
big stick
Roosevelt said that if statesmen had this, they could work their will among foreign nations without shouting. If they lacked it, shouting would do no good.
House of Burgesses
Elected assembly in colonial Virginia, created in 1618.
State Church Disestablishment
"further reveals the dislike of special privilege"
One of changes emphasizing the idea that every citizen was equally important and that all should participate in government
A person willing to respect or accept behavior or opinions different from one's own..
feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Sit in movement
movement that went to segregated places inorder to support intergration
King Philip's War
1676- united tribes and attacked Puritans- slowed Western expansion- killed Indians
Julius Caesar
Part of the first triumvirate who eventually became "emperor for life". Chose not to conquer Germany. Was assassinated by fellow senators in 44 B.C.E.
Alexander Nevski
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde. (p. 339)
One of the german princes who elected the Holy Roman Emperor
Pontiac's Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Battle of Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Battle of the Bulge
major German offensive, launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes Mountains region of Wallonia in Belgium, and France and Luxembourg on the Western Front. The "bulge" being the initial incursion the Germans put into the Allies' line of advance, as seen in maps presented in contemporary newspapers. Germany's goal for these operations was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp, Belgium, and then proceed to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis Powers' favor. Once accomplished, Hitler could return his attention and the bulk of his forces to the Soviet armies in the east.
Portugese exploration
God, gold, glory; King Henry the Navigator
1080. British blockade
Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.
Cancelled a former treaty and allowed US to build Panama Canal
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Fair Employee Practices Committee
A. Philip Randolph demanded black rights in work; FDR stopped discrimination in gov. industries
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
787. Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
three estates
1. First Estate­ Clergy­ 1% of pop, 10% of land, 0% of taxes
2. Second estate­ Nobility­ 2% of pop, 20% of land, little taxes
3. Third estate­ Everyone else. All taxed, heavily.
Three-Fifths Compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
The influence of the Maya on the Toltc can be seen in the similarities between Tulan and what Mayan city?
Yi Kingdom
The Yi dynasty ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the colonization of Korea by Japan. (p. 362)
Molasses Act of 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
burned over district
A term that refers religious revivals to western New York. Puritan sermonizers were preaching "hell-fire and damnation." The Mormon religion was established by Joseph Smith, who claimed to have had a revelation from angel and they faced much persecution from the people and were eventually forced to move west. (Salt Lake City) After the difficult journey they greatly improved their land through wise forms of irrigation. The establishment and persecution of the Mormon religion revisited old themes that were around from the original colonists. The Mormons migration westward brought new prosperity to the unpopulated west and has become a prominent part in American society today.
the aztecs
What empire in the americas rose to power from a nomdic tribe of mercenary warriors?
124. Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
Japan then took over teh province of _____ in China in 1931. When the League of Nations attempted to hold Japan responsbible, Japan_____from the league of nations.
manchuria; deparated
11. In 1901 and 1903, these Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag. Ruled that the newly acquired islands of Puerto Rico and the Philippines would not have all the rights of American citizens
The Insular Cases
emergency quota act of 1924
limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted to the United States.
Klondike Gold Rush
a frenzy of gold rush immigration to and for gold prospecting, along the Klondike River near Dawson City, Yukon, Canada after gold was discovered there in the late 19th century.
Homestead Strike
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
National Socialist Party (Nazis)
the German political party led by Adolf Hitler that became powerful in Germany before and during WWII; the only political party allowed in Germany under Hitler
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
national defense act (1916)
..., Expand American military in time of peace, Established ROTC in universities, state militias into a national guard
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
French intervention in the Revolutionary War
May 1776, Louis XVI authorized a secret aid to the Americans a) Without this aid, they could not have continued the war i) The French smuggled supplies through Britain's weak blockade b) Franklin and Vergennes signed 2 treaties in 1778 i) Commercial agreement- granted Americans generous trading terms with France ii) France made a perpetual alliance with the US, recognized American independence, agreed to fight until Britain conceded, and disavowed all territorial ambition on the North American continent c) Caused Lord North to concede to everything but their independence- was rejected d) Caused George III to declare war on France and ordered General Clinton, new general, to abandon Philadelphia
battle of thames river
A decisive American victory in the War of 1812. It resulted in the death of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, and the destruction of the Native American confederacy which he led.
Ellis Island
a portal on an island in the New York Harbor through which immigrants entered America; designated as the site of the first Federal immigration station in 1890 by President Benjamin Harrison; this station was used by a majority of immigrants
883. Disenfranchisement, Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
Stamp and Quartering Acts
Stamp - Required colonists to pay for a stamp to go on many documents essential to their lives. Affected many intellectuals in particular, and disregarded taxation-with-representation. (1765)

Quartering - Forced colonists to pay a tax to house and feed British soldiers, or house and feed them themselves. (1765)
Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation. The Connecticut Plan called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the Compromise Plan.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
The NAACP challenge to school segregation succeeded on the grounds that separate facilities denied kids equal protection under the law (feeling of inferiority generated
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Known as the Fair Housing Act and was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. While the Civil Rights Act of 1866 prohibited discrimination in housing, there were no federal enforcement provisions. The 1968 act expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, and as of 1974, gender; as of 1988, the act protects the disabled and families with children. It also provided protection for civil rights workers.
1373. Office of War mobilization and Reconversion
1944 - Directed by James F. Byrnes. Determined whether any prime contract for war production scheduled for termination after WWII should be continued in force.
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