AP World History 54 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sharia
Islamic Law
Old Hickory
Andrew Jackson
witchcraft
persecution Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas.
City-state
Urban areas that controlled surrounding agricultural regions and that were often loosely connected in a broader political structure with other city-states.
CREEP
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
Socrates
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others. (133)
Jackson
strong supported of States' Rights
Antebellum
phrase meaning before the civil war
Desiderius Eurasmus
This influential humanist from northern Europe wrote a new edition of the New Testament in Greek as well as other influential works
Mir Bai
Writer of religious poetry; Woman
Cleveland
-Dawes Act (division of Indian land)
-Interstate commerce act (controls on railroad to avoid monopoly)
Functionalism
buildings should be useful and functional. Efficiency+clean lines. Architects had to work with engineers, town planners, sanitation experts. (ex: Le Corbusier)
monsoon
These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year. (pp. 174, 371)
Dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular sails
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Writer who expressed disillusionment with transcendentalism and the Brooks Farm experiment; discussed these views in novels.
Covenant theology
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God's covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of grace between God and man through Christ.
Patrilineal
Family descent and inheritance traced through the male line
Supply-side economics
tax cuts to increase population spending (help economy), drastic cutting back on government programs due to lack of funds
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed. (p. 761)
Force Acts
Acts passed to promote African American voting and mainly aimed at limiting the activities of the Ku Klux Klan. Through the acts, actions committed with the intent to influence voters, prevent them from voting, or conspiring to deprive them of civil rights, including life, were made federal offenses. Thus the federal government had the power to prosecute the offenses, including calling federal juries to hear the cases.
zhou
People who overthrew the Shang Dynasty of China in 1122 B.C.
Pugachev Rebellion
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
Powhatan
chief of the Algonquin tribe; traded with the English in Jamestown and helped them survive through the winter (Father of Pocahantas)
Navigation Laws
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
il-khanate
Mongol rule in Persia deferred to local Persian authorities, who administered *whom* as long as they delivered taxes to the Mongols and maintained order?
Song Dynasty
Empire in southern China (1127-1279) while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
Tamil Kingdoms
The kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Aryan north. (185)
Abraham Lincoln
A one-term congressman from Illinois during the Mexican War. His debates with Senator Stephen Douglas in 1858 propelled him to national attention and the Republican nomination for president in 1860. He won the election and led the Union during the Civil War, during which he issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
Ferdinand Magellan
First person to circumnavigate the world.
aqueduct
A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization. (p. 156)
Automobiles
A wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor.
han dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
66. Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Wounded Knee massacre
Americans wiped out "Ghost Dance" cult to stop the Sun Dance.
All-India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan (813)
Lusitania
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs - had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
Victorian Age
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people (711)
Ayllus
In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler
what is a city state
urban center with agriculture
Neo-Assyrian Empire
An empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine, conquered by the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia between the tenth and seventh centuries B.C.E. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects. (93)
To fill the army's demand for troops, the Norht relied mainly on...
a. The draft
b. Bounty brokers
c. Substitute brokers
d. Volunteers
e. Foreign mercenaries
d
Funan kingdom
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)
Warsaw Pact
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (p. 836)
Ivan the Terrible
"House of Rurik"; had centralized power over the entire Russian sphere by the mid-1500s
Mountian Men
The first Americans to reach the Oregon country. They were mainly fur trappers.
Roger Williams
Founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
neolithic
latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)
Sam Adams
Master at propaganda and rebellion for revolution, formed first committee of correspondence in 1768
fertile crescent
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
 
 
 
331. President Jefferson
 
 
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
SANDRA DAY OCONNOR
conservative justice appointed to the supreme court by Reagan
insurrection
an act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government.
Marbury vs. Madison
a. 1803- case involving the disputed appointment of a federal justice of the peace in which John Marshall expanded the Supreme Court's authority to review legislation b. William Marbury was one of the justices who was eliminated by Jefferson c. He sued Madison (secretary of state) for the non delivery of his commission
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
862. Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Pentagon Papers
(RN), , a classified study of the Vietnam War that was carried out by the Department of Defense. An official of the department, Daniel Ellsberg, gave copies of the study in 1971 to the New York Times and Washington Post. The Supreme Court upheld the right of the newspapers to publish the documents. In response, President Richard Nixon ordered some members of his staff, afterward called the "plumbers," to stop such "leaks" of information. The "plumbers," among other activities, broke into the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist, looking for damaging information on him. r Defense Secretary Robert McNamara , revealed among other things that the government had drawn up plans for entering rthe war even as President Johnson promised that he would not send American troops to Viet.
First 100 Days
From FDR's inauguration in March 1933 through the following June. Roosevelt pushed program after program through Congress in an effort to provide economic relief and recovery
CA Proposition 209, 1996
state constitution to prohibit public institutions from considering race, sex, or ethnicity
dollar diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
The Space Race
With the launch of the Russian satellite Sputnik the American people began viewing the Sputnik launch as an American loss which sparked a new fervor in American space Technologies. America also experienced a 'loss' putting a human in space, that was also taken by the Russians. America was however the first nation to land a person on a celestial body other that earth
Webster Ashburton Treaty
Following the Aroostook War, in 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundary disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790's; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption
260. President George Washington
He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
NIXON AND CHINA
Nixon was invited to China; China’s not recognized in the UN; we offer stuff to China to end the war (because they are backing north Vietnam)
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814. (See also Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel.) (p. 626)
The Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognized the United States as an independent nation
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Molasses Act
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
what was Harsha's religious policy
Harsha remained steadfastly loyal to Hinduism and suppressed the few remaining Buddhist monasteries in his empire
Maysville Road Veto
vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state
894. Indian Appropriations Act
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
How does Classical Liberalism operate? (2)
1. Let businesses regulate themselves
2. Lassiz-Faire, Lassiz-Passer "let it be, leave it alone".
What was the basis of the economy of New France?
Fish, valuable furs
Civil Rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Merchants / Markets
A market is the area or group of people which needs a product. Colonial merchants took goods produced in the colonies to areas of the world that needed those goods. Also, the colonies served as a market for other countries' goods.
1414. To Secure these Rights
A report by the President's Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year after the Committee was formed, and helped pave the way for the civil rights era. It recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.
List the reforms introduced by the first Ming emperor.
Allowed scholars into high places, made the education system better
reasons people moved around other than conquest and trade
populations grew, causing people to need to spread out. cities were established with the purpose of attracting people. and pilgrimages.
The Rome-Berlin Axis 1934
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
1032. Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Witlock, Hazen Pingree
Mayors for social reform, they wanted a reform of values over more legislation.
Who was more successful in the west and what was their goal?
the union; to control the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers, dividing the confederacy and reducing mobility of its armies
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