AP World History 55 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Viking/Norse
Scandinavian raiders
Intrastate
within the state
shi
Probably originally priests; transformed into corps of professional bureaucrats because of knowledge of writing during Zhou dynasty in China.
Invincibility
Proclamation of 1763 New France
SDI
Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (1983), also known as "Star Wars," called for a land- or space-based shield against a nuclear attack. Although SDI was criticized as unfeasible and in violation of the Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, Congress approved billions of dollars for development.
nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe (713)
Plessy v. Ferguson
”separate but equal
Queue
braided hair, the Manchurians forced the Chinese to shave their foreheads and braid their hair as a sign of submission
Avicenna
Latin translations of the Iranian philosopher Ibn Sina. They had a great influence because of their sophisticated blend of Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy.
Saladin
Leader of Muslims against the Crusaders; Ruled at the time the Muslims regained all their land
Taft
passage of 16th amendment, trust busting, civil service reform
Magyars
An ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Although the Magyars were one of the largest ethnic groups, that entire region had many ethnic groups who always ended up fighting. These conflicts made it extremely difficult to bring nationalism to the region.
manor
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land. (p. 254)
Sahel
extensive grassland at the southern edge of Sahara
New Light
Religious revivalism movement whose supporters believed that every individual could achieve salvation.
First slaves arrive in N. America
1619
Xia

[shEE Š]
ChinaÕs first, possibly mythical, kingdom; no archeological sites have been connected to it; ruled by Yu
Wage Slaves
northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who ere still kept fed and clothed in their old age)
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
"radical" regimes
A loose faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from about 1854 until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. They were opposed during the war by moderates and after the war by self described "conservatives" in the South and "Liberals" in the North.
five classics
A corpus of texts considered authoritative by the early Confucians. They include poetry, historical, speeches, chronicles, ritual, and divination, Texts used to train scholars and civil servants in ancient China
Cossacks
free groups and outlaw armies of peasants who fled the tzar and service nobility
Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
trade
Southeast Asia, Africa and India are well connected by ?
Aryans
immigrants who arrived at the Ganges river valley by the year 1000 BC
patron/client relationship
Anciant Roman: a fundamental social relationship in which the patron-a wealthy and powerful individual-provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the clients supported their patrons (149
watergate
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
Algonquin
Another one of the largest linguistic groups, lives on the Atlantic Coast from Canada to Virginia.
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion. (p. 230)
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Whigs
party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery
71. Admiralty courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
Connecticut
Founded by Thomas Hooker who brought groups of Puritans to new colony.
Munn V. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads
phonetic alphabet
an alphabet of characters intended to represent specific sounds of speech
Chivalry
A knight's code of honor in medieval Europe
Confederacy
An alliance or league of nations or peoples looser than a federation.
Forbidden City
The walled section of Beijing where emperors lived between 1121 and 1924. A portion is now a residence for leaders of the People's Republic of China. (p. 355)
In his raid on Harpers Ferry, John Brown intended to...
a. foment (start) a slave rebellion
b. discredit abolitionists
c. force the North and South to compromise on the slavery issue
d. make Kansas a free state
e. overthrow the federal government
a
Francis Drake
was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and a politician of the Elizabethan era;He is famous for (among other things) leading the first English circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
Lydians
came of with concept of coined money (instead of barter system) so that people could save money
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern trans-Alpine Renaissance (407,445)
Enumerated Powers
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Mohenjo-Daro
largest of the cities of the Indus valley civilization; it was centrally located located in the extensive flood-plain of the Indus Valley in modern day Pakistan; large-scale construction, orderly grid of streets, standardization of building materials are evidence of central planning
Trail of Tears
5 Civilized Tribes. Jackson wanted Western expansion. Indian Removal act, pushed them out. Also tried to christianize Indians.
Cordell Hull
The Secretary of State who believed that trade was a two-way street, that a nation can sell abroad only as it buys abroad, that tariff barriers choke off foreign trade, and that trade wars beget shooting wars. He was one of the main contributors to the reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers. (P.802)
 
 
 
 
307. "Rule of 1756"
 
 
A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both of two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one of the nations. This justified Britain’s seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
"Bulldog" Braddock
A nickname for the old, incompetent general during the beginning of the French & Indian War
inherently
existing in someone or something as a permanent and inseparable element, quality, or attribute:
George Washington
First President of the US -veteran of French and Indian War - named commander in chief of the continental Army by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 -unanimously chosen by the electoral college - was very nervous about being President - important because he had to make smart decisions or else America might have collapsed - very anxious and self doubtful about becoming President - had a very big reputation because of the winning of the war -choses president of Philidephia Convention 1787 -served as President for 2 terms
adams-onis treaty
Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States
857. Winslow Homer
A Realist painter known for his seascapes of New England.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet and professor of modern languages at Harvard. Lived 1807-1882. During a period which was dominated in the literary field by Transcendentalists, Longfellow was an urbane poet who catered to the upper classes and the more educated of the citizens. He was also popular in Europe, and is the only American poet to have a bust in Westminster Abbey.
Equal Rights Amendment!
(RN) , in 1972 and 1988, constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
betty friedan
She was an American feminist who wrote The Feminine Mystique. Her book brought attention to the feminist movement and, she founded the National Organization for Women.
Decline of Merchant Capitalism
By the mid-1800's merchant capitalism was declining. British competitors were stealing much of the American market, and many other American merchants who were not beaten out of the market found it much more profitable to enter the industrial and manufacturing markets.
Greenback Party
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
Captain James Cook
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in openings of islands to the West; convinced Kamehamehah to establish a unified kingdon in the islands
1380. Right-to-Work laws
State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers join the union as a condition of their employment.
WILLIAM WESTERMORELAND
top commander of US forces in Vietnam; led campaign against Tet offensive
Battle of Siffin
Alie was on the verge of Umayyad defeat until he accepted Umayyad plea for mediation
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)
The english people were sent by
Noone, they went for freedom
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.
What was the Ka'ba
the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce
The Glorious Revolution
William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
745. Charles Schwab (1862-1939)
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
What caused the Ming Dynasty to decline?
Rebellions, crop failure, high taxes
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
declared by Lord De La Warr when he took over Jamestown; marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (first interracial union in Virginia) ended war in 1614
292. Election of 1800, tie, Jefferson and Burr
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The final decision went the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
Explain why the earliest of the Japanese military centralizers accepted Christian missionaries.
Because Nobunga delighted in wearing Western clothes and all things western appealed to him.
collapse of the Western portion of the Roman empire
combination of internal decay, external pressure, the sheer size of the empire, and the succession of a few weak leaders, led the empire to collapse. Diocletian tried to divide the empire, which just led to civil war. Constantine tried to move the capital to constantinople but he struggled with the economy and external pressite. The the Visigoths and the Huns (led by Attila) began to press on the roman empire. the visigoths sacked rome in 41- and by 476 the roman emperor had been deposed. the fall of the western hald of the roman empire was complete. the eastern half would survive, but not as the roman empire. it became the byzantine empire.
Bretton Woods and the IMF
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
1049. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
Editor who wrote The Promise of American Life about government authority being used to balance economic activity. This was the basis for Theodore Roosevelt's "New Nationalism."
How did the Republicans in the North raise money to par for the war?
raised tariffs on consumer goods, and impsed direct taxes on business corporations, large inheritances and incomes
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