AP World History 79 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
invented photograph
Daguerre
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucat?n Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar. (p. 302)
aztecs
Ancient civilization (1200-1521AD) that was located in what is present-day Mexico City
Protestant Reformation
Sixteenth-century European movement during which Luther,
Calvin, Zwingli, and others broke away from the Catholic church.
Xia
China's first, possibly mythical, kingdom; no archeological sites have been connected to it; ruled by Yu.
The Term for a subcaste.
Jati
demographic
of or pertaining to demography.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic vice-presidential candidate in 1920, assistant navy secretary
Cohong
specially licensed Chinese firms that were under strict government regulation
Hebrews
society whose faiths were deeply rooted in Judaism (first Jews); established Israel; maintained their culture despite the many invasions they experienced
"salt
water" slaves Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black.
shamanism
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia. (p. 292)
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations. (p. 833)
1619
First elected legislative assembly in Jamestown
Bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
indians called him Big Kinfe
Andrew Jackson
indigent
lacking food, clothing, and other necessities of life because of poverty; needy; poor; impoverished.
third century crisis
political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C.E.: frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce. (157)
Eiichi
went from peasant to investing money and becoming rich, example of new wealth
ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Sam Houston
1793-1863, U.S. soldier and political leader: president of the Republic of Texas 1836-38 and 1841-44.
Sunnis
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. (See also Shi'ites.) (p. 225)
Andrew Jackson
1829-1837, (King Andrew, Old Hickory) Democrat, issue = 2nd Bank of America (Jackson and Clay), Whig Party emerged
Seven
Years' War Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America.
Gilded Age Presidents
Hayes (1876-1880), Garfield (1881), Arthur (1881-1885), Cleveland (1885-1889, 1893-1897), Harrison (1889-1893), McKinley (1897-1901)
The President and Kansas
James Buchanan(Democrat) succeeded Pierce; approved the Lecompton Constitution; Senator Douglas campaigned against it; compromise was reached:people allowed to vote for/against Lecompton. Buchanan divided the only national party (Democrats) by enraging the Douglas Democrats of the North.
Mohenjo-Daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. (p. 48)
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Common
Centrally located pasture for all to share
Roger Williams
A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Albany Plan of Union
colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect
Cavaliers
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
Alexander's Greek Empire
Alexander successfuly conquered the Persian Empire adn attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures. He also dominated the eastern Mediterranean region.
harriet tubman
U.S. abolitionist: escaped slave and leader of the Underground Railroad; served as a Union scout during Civil War.
"endless-chain" operation
This happened when, with the inflation of currency with silver, people redeemed their certificates for gold, thus depleting the Treasury's supply. The gold reserve dropped below the safe $100 million per $350 million paper money, necessitating the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. In 1894 the gold reserve sank below $41 million, requiring Cleveland to seek nongovernmental help.
Scots-Irish
people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They lived in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by these people. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
What device did sailors use to calculate their location with relation to the horizon?
The astrolabe
978. Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
Zenger
German writer who wrote bad about the governor, started the free press.
Harry Hopkins
former New York social worker who became an influential FDR adviser and head of several New Deal agencies
Manor
small parcel of land that one knight could manage
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight.", patriot naval leader who commanded the American ship Bonhomme Richard, which defeated the British ship Serapis in 1779.
General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
Shinto
"way of the gods"; religion of the early Japanese culture; worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offered food and prayers to gods and nature spirits
Lexington
8 Americans are killed by Red Coats trying to seize power and capture Sam Adams and John Hancock- the first battle of the Revolutionary war
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia, ruled in the name of Abbasid caliphs mid 11th century
Kamasutra
"laws of love"; written in 4th century CE; discusses relationships between men & women;
Ralph Waldo Emerson
in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote "The American Scholar"
great migration
settlement of over 20000 puritans in massachusetts bay and other parts of new england between 1630 and 1642
Theodore Dreiser
- "Sister Carrie" (1900) --> city makes ppl fall to sin- dealth w/ social inequality- "An American Tragedy" (1925)- socialist
William Jennings Bryan
1896, Democrat, backed by Populists; ran on a strictly populist platform; based campaign on the call for "free silver"; ran against William McKinley
William Randolph Hearst
In his "Journal," he printed sensational stories, using techniques of "yellow journalism." Boasted he started Spanish-American War.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
First Labor Unions*
(AJ), in Philly, wanted 1) abolition of imprisonment for debt 2) free education 3) abolition of prison contract 4) 10 hour work day
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who mixed his pigments with linseed oil in place of the egg yolk of earlier centuries. His oil paints dried more slowly and gave pictures a superior luster. His technique was quickly copied by Italian painters.
Torrijos Carter Treaties
These treaties stated that Panama gets control of the canal after 1999.
social darwinism
"survival of the fittest" - the idea that only the strong survive.
Panic of 1893
depression marked by the collapse of railroads and following series of bank failures
new federalism
a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
Battle of Tours
a battle between Christian and Muslim forces in 732 when the Muslim forces had advanced into France
habeas corpus
In law, an order requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court at a specified time and place in order to determine the legality of the imprisonment.
Bland Allison Act
1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Monotheism
belief in only one god, rare in the ancient world
Virginia Plan
Penned by Madison; what we have now, but the Feds could overturn state laws.
Henry Hudson
explorer that gave Dutch claim to the New World.
Black Codes
Tried to limit rights of blacks by making them sign one year contract to low-paying job.
Selective Service Act*
(FDR) 1940, first peace time draft, 21 through 35 years old
628. Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) founded by James Farmer and dedicated to the idea of a peaceceful change
Seneca Falls
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
vietnam in the middle ages
resistant to t'ang authorities - maintained confucianism, but had constant battles with chinese
Hundred Days Congress
FDR began sending bill after bill to Congress. Between March 9 and June 16, 1933 which came to be called the HUNDRED DAYS. Congress passed 15 major acts to meet the economic crisis setting a pace for new legislation that has never been equaled. Later became known as 1st New Deal.
507. Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers’ army in the Texas Revolution.
William T. Sherman
A Union general in the Civil War.
- He was given command to march through Georgia, capturing and burning down Atlanta before completing his famous “march to the sea” at Savannah.
636. Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade
Union generals in the Civil War.
Slash & Burn Agriculture
existed in many parts of the world including South America until about 150 years ago; people would burn off trees in an area, farm intensely for a few years until the soil was depleted, and then moved on, then returned 20ish years later;
bank of the united states
either of the two National Banks, funded by the federal government and private investors, established by congress, the first in 1791 and the second in 1816
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote in all elections
242. James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
1262. Act of Havana
1940 - Approved by the 21 delegates of the Pan-American Union. Declared that any Latin American nation was permitted, in the name of defense, to take over and administer any European possession in the New World.
367. Treaty of Ghent, provisions
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
What was the three-pronged plan of attack for the abolitionist leaders?
Appeal to the public, assist African Americans who fled from slavery, and to seek support among state and national legislature
How did Jackson screw up the finances of the USA in his second term?

He got rid of the national bank and had "Pet banks", state banks with treasury funds. 
Specie Circular 
His screw ups and use of veto power made him unpopular by the end of his presidency. 
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