Ap World History From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Monsoons
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Assyrians
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Indra
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Frescoes
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Harappa
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Sanskrit
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Xia
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Neo-Babylonian Empire
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Mohenjo Daro
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Shang Dynasty
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Laussel Venus
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Valley of the Kings
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Axun
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Mero' in first century c.e.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Polytheism
The belief in multiple gods.
Phoenicians
Seafaring civilization located on the shores of the easter Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean.
band
a level of social organization normally consisting of 20 to 30 people; nomadic hunters and gatherers; labor divided on a gender basis
Hittities
An Indo-EUropean people who entered Mesptamia c. 1750 b.c.e.; destroyed the Babylonian empire; swept away c. 1200 b.c.e.
savages
societies engaged in either hunting and gather for subsistence r in migratory cultivation; not as stratified or specialized as civilized and nomadic societies
Chimu state
Regional Andean chiefdom that flourished from 800 to 1465 c.e,; fell to Incas
Chichimecs
American hunting and gathering groups: largely responsible for the disruption of early civilizations in Mesoamerica.
Miscegenation
Reproduction by parents of different races (especially by white and non-white persons).
Mesopotamia
Literally "between the rivers"; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley.
Pharaoh
Title of kings of ancient Egypt.
Ziggurats
Massive towers usually associated with Mesopotamian temple complexes.
Nomads
Cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as 'barbarian' by civilized societies.
City-State
A form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-based king.
Pastorialism
A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies.
Culture
Combinations of the ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction.
Hebrews
Semitic peoples from the western Middle East; major contribution was the introduction of monotheism.
Neanderthals
Species of genus Homo that disappeared at the end of the Paleolithic period
Sargon I
Ruler of city-state of Akkad; established the first empire in Mesopotamian civilization c. 2400 b.c.e.
hieroglyphs
the form of writing developed in ancient Egypt; more pictorial than Mesopotamian cuneiform
Hammurabi
The most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law
Jericho
Early walled urban culture site based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israeli-occupied West Bank near the Jordan River.
Anasazi
"The Ancient Ones"; culture located in southwestern United States; flourished from 200 C.E. to 1,200 C.E.; featured large multistory adobe and stone buildings built in protected canyons or cliffs.
Hieroglyphics
The form of writing developed in ancient Egypt; more pictorial than Mesopotamian writing.
Civilization
A society distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, written language, organized laws and an organized economy.
Catal Huyuk
Early urban cultured based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern day southern Turkey; had a larger population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification.
Agrarian Revolution
Occurred between 8,000 B.C.E. and 5,000 B.C.E.; transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture.
mummification
the act of preserving the bodies of the dead; practiced in Egypt to preserve the body for enjoyment of the afterlife
Bronze age
From about 4000 b.c.e when bronze tools were first introduced in the middle East, to about 1500 b.c.e, when iron began to replace it
Aztecs
The Mexica, one of the nomadic tribes that used political anarchy after fall of Toltecs to penetrate into the sedentary agricultural zone of Mesoamerican plateau; established empire after 1325 around shored of Lake Texcoco
Nile River
The world's longest river; flows south to north with its terminus in the eastern delta along the southern shore of the Mediterranean.
Papyrus
Paper made from the papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing it flat.
Horizon
Archeological term for a period when a broad central authority seems to have integrated a widely dispersed regions.
Venus of Willendorf
Fertility symbol, ancient sculpture of nude women in exaggerated form, discovered in Willendorf, Austria.
Matrilocal
A culture in which young men upon marriage go live with the bride's families.
Ordos Bulge
Area located on the Yellow River, region of fertile soil; site of Yangshao (hunting and fishing predominated) and Longshan (cultivation of grain) cultures.
Paleolithic Age
The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 b.c.e.; typified by use f crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence
Hunting and Gathering Societies
Societies that utilized hunting and gathering of food as a means of obtaining subsistence; occurred often prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization.
Neolithic Age
New Stone age between 8000 BCE and 5000 BCE. This was the period in which the adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred as well as the one in which the domestication of animals took place.
Division of Labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers.
The Book of the Dead
The book that contained all necessary information that the Egyptians needed to prepare for the after life.
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