AP World History Review 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tanzimat Reforms
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons
Umma
community of the faithful
Qing
Chinese dynasty (1644-1911) that reached its peak during the reigns of
Kangxi and Qianlong.
Thatcher,
Margaret Conservative British prime minister from 1979 to 1991; held that office longer than any other person; worked to cut welfare and housing expenses, promote free enterprise.
Red Cross
founded by Clara Barton
neutrality
the state of being neutral.
buddha
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)
Hijra
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina in 622, which is the beginning point of the Islamic calendar and is considered to mark the beginning of the Islamic faith
Lydians
society near the Persian empire; introduced the concept of coined money
vendettas
Blood-feuds between families or clans of nomadic pastoralists; created a major barrier to interclan and tribal cooperation.
Sufis
mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple life
Salvador Allende
Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown by the military in 1973. He died during the military attack. (p. 856)
Granger Laws
regulated railroad and warehouse rates
Bandung Conference
conference in which representatives from twenty-nine governments of Asian and African nations gathered in Bandung, Indonesia to discuss peace and the role of the Third World in the Cold War, economic development, and decolonization
Executive Branch
the law-enofrcing branch of gvmn't
revisionism
any departure from Marxist doctrine, theory, or practice, esp. the tendency to favor reform above revolutionary change.
nawab
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor. (p. 657)
Roger Williams
banished from Massachusetts bay colony because he believed in separation of church and state, individual conscience; established Rhode Island
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Green Movement
Politcal parties, esp. in Europe focusing envirometal issues and economic growth.
vassal
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord. (p. 256)
Seventeenth Amendment
(WW) , direct election of senators
Plebians
In an effort to alleviate social tensions, what group was allowed to elect 2 and then 10 tribunes?
nation-states
A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language.
the virginia company, which found jamestown in 1607 was a
joint-stock company
capitalism
The economic system of large financial institutions-banks, stock exchanges, investment companies-that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy. (506)
Battle of Plattsburg
American forces repelled another British invasion in northern New York, on September 11, 1814, when they turned back a much more numerous British naval and land force.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 created Kansas and Nebraska Stephen A. Douglas proposed it. Popular sovereignty
Calvinism
Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.
Currency Act
prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
Philadelphia Quakers
Who found the world's first anti-slavery society?
Hinduism
Hinduism includes a wide variety of beliefs found on the Indian subcontinent, including the basic concepts of a caste system with Brahmin preists at the top. The concept of dharama, or laws for daily life, is delinated fro each caste. The sacred texts are the Vedas and Upanishads.
sputnik
any of a series of Soviet earth-orbiting satellites:
Eugene Debs
led Socialists, ran against Wilson in 1912 election
Albany Congress
A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
How did the Ottomans treat other faiths?
Religious freedom
164. Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
Autocracy
Government when all the power is held by one ruler.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
extremely high tariff act that killed international trade and deepened the Great Depression
Bronze metallurgy
helped Egypt become wealthy and be successful in battle
Great Awakening
1740s - Religious enthusiasm in the Middle Colonies. Essentially, it involved a belief that God responds well to good intentions, and not everyone is damned. Represented Colonial Unity (important). Many controversies occurred: Princeton and other colleges were created.
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
Diet of Japan
Japan's bicameral legislature that is composed of a lower house, called the House of Representatives, and an upper house called, the House of Councillors; both houses are elected under a parallel voting system. In addition to passing laws, this is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister.
John Adams
defense attorney of the British troops in the Boston Massacre- future president
Khadijah
First wife of Muhammad, who worked for her as a trader
Yoga
"union"; allowing the mind to be free to concentrate on the divine spirit
101. John C. Calhoun
opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)
loyalists
also known as tories/ refers to those americans who remained loyal to GB during the revolution/ 1/3 of colonial population/ Many fled to england and canada after the war
John Spargo
- British writer & muckraker- "The Bitter Cry of Children"- against child labor- socialist- was part of the National Pty
election of 1828
beginning of the modern political party system
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Safeguards businesses from domination by state governments.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
Operation Desert Storm
(GB1) , Deadlines pass and Sadam doesnt move. Op desert shield becomes operation desert storm. Phases of the war = 1-air attack on Sadam 2-troops push him out of Kuwait.
Ignatius Loyola
Founder of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, he was a former mercenary who became a priest and 'fought' for the church in the Catholic Reformation
U.S.S. Maine
An American battleship sent to Cuba in order to evacuate any American in case of another flare-up. The ship spontaneously exploded in Havana harbor, and the cause was put on Spain's shoulders, thus starting the Spanish-American War.1898
Alexander the Great
created the largest empire of all time; son of Philip of Macedon; conquered Persian empire and attempted to conquer India
diaz
in charge of mexican govt at the time of reolution
German East Africa
battles fought in now day Tanzania between the German Africans and British Indians and South Africans.
Pedro II
son of Pedro who became ruler of Brazil in 1831 when his father abdicated the throne to him; reformed Brazilian economy into a major exporter of coffee; abolished slavery in 1888; last monarch of Brazil as the land owners were enraged by the abolition of slavery and revolted in 1889 making Brazil into a republic
bipedalism
The ability to walk upright on 2 legs, characteristic of homonoids. (p. 9)
Dawes Severality Act
act, an attempt to assimilate native americans it provided 160 acres of land to native americans willing to accept certain terms; after 25 years they could become american citizens
Mansa Musa
Emperor of Mali and went on a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
Sir Edmond Andros
governor of the Dominion of New England
Alien and Sedition Acts
Among other things, raised the residency requirement and prohibited anybody from speaking out against the government. It was intended to silence critics of the Federalist party, but contributed to the party's decline.
Change in the Eighties
(RR), reduced the domestic funds of government by choking off its revenue, weakened civil rights enforcement, dealt with education (Willaim Bennett), rich benefited, poor didn't, women started working male jobs, rising benefits of social security, chidren had it worse, worked part time or temporary, but few or no benefits, North - computer industry, South - decline in manufacturing
1053. Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Marquis de Montcalm
leader of French in Quebec who was defeated by English James Wolfe in 1759
Election of , Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
the four noble truths
all life is suffering, suffering is caused by desire, the way to end suffering is to end desire, the way to end desiring is through the eightfold path.
Sussex Pledge (1916)
A torpedo from a German submarine hit a french passenger liner, called the Sussex in march 1916. Wilson demanded the germans retain from attacking passenger ships. In the Sussex Pledge germany said they would temporarily stop these attacks but might have to resume in the future if British continued to blockade German ports.
906. Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Sherman's march through Georgia
Total war - marched through Georgia destroying everything as they went. Depleted Southern supplies and moral.
1582. Lech Walesa, Solidarity
President of Poland in 1990, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. He formed the first independent trade union in Poland, called Solidarity, and eventually brought down the Communist government and instituted democratic government. Credited with initiating the end of Communist domination in Eastern Europe.
judicial review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
The Brazilian Solution
Brazil was the first nation to take a reactionary approach to the challenges of the cuban revolution and liberation theology, this was called what?
157. Boston Tea Party, 1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
1254. West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.
238. Philadelphia Convention for the Constitution (Constitutional Convention)
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
725. Secret ballot / Australian ballot
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
Who were the main receptors of the Fourierist ideas?
educated farmers and craftsmen who yearned for economic stability and communial solidarity
US Support of France in Vietnam Conflict
US pays 85% of the cost of war (no troops) - even though we basically pay for the war, they lose the biggest battle Dienbienphu
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