AP World History Vocab 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Virgin Queen
Queen Elizabeth
probably originally priest; transformed into corps of professional bureaucrats because of knowledge of writing during Zhou dynasty.
election of 1872
grant reelected
early brilliant Indian society centered around Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
overthrew Shang Dynasty and established second Chinese dynasty
Athenian statesman who persuaded Athens to build a navy and then led it to victory over the Persians (527-460 BC)
The theory justifying strong, centralized rule, such as by the tsar in Russia or Haile Selassie in Ethiopia. The autocrat did not rely on the aristocracy or the clergy for his or her legitimacy. (p. 553)
eurpean and native american people; cortes created this culture
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
reforms Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.
The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti.
individual who received legal and exclusive right to a colony
internal improvements
included roads, canals, railroads/ essentally, an internal transportation network that would bind the country together.
The founder Siddhartha Guatama created a belief system based on the Four Noble Truths
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. (pp. 258, 445)
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
A member of the Indo-European people who crossed into India around 1500 BC
In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided for fair wages
divisions within the varna, groups of similar people
Catharine Beecher
sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, encouraged women to enter the teaching profession b/c their "natural" role suited them to the care and nurturing of children. She combined the "cult of domesticity" with educational reform.
Henry David Thoreau
A nineteenth-century American author and proponent of transcendentalism. He was a strong advocate of individual rights and an opponent of social conformity. His best-known works are the book Walden and the essay "Civil Disobedience."
James Otis
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance (1761) and the Stamp Act.
Currency Act,
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
National Liberation Front
Insurgents South Vietnam seeking united nation; fought against South Vietnamese and U.S. forces; worked with North Vietnam.
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 552)
7. Song Dynasty
invented steel, gunpowder, printing press/moveable type; didn't put money in military so Mongolians
Deerfield Massacre
bloody massacre during King William's War
American Antislavery Society
Abolitionist society that included many well-known whites and also former slaves such as Douglass; held meetings in many parts of the country and published writings speaking out against slavery.
St. Scholastica
St. Benedict's sister (a nun); provided guidance for religious life for women
Anti-Federalist Papers
Written by Anti-Federalists, who were largely coutnry famers distrustful of centralized government. Appalled by the abscene of a Bill of Rights for the Constitution.
Impeachment is to accuse a public official of misconduct in office. The Jeffersonians were angry about a ruling made by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives attempted to impeach the unpopular Supreme Court Justice, Samuel Chase. Although there were enough votes in the House of Representatives, the Senate did not have enough. Since this attempt in 1804, there has been no serious attempt to impeach members of the Supreme Court.
to furnish or aid with a subsidy.
James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
balance of power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful. (p. 455)
clara barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
Geneva Conference of 1954
France allowed for Indochina independence, broke it up into Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam
Opium Wars
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
the higher class people of the native American societies, that controlled the government along with the grand leader
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
the estates granted to vassals by the lord that they were pledged to which later became known as manors
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. 1902 (736)
the theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys
Great Circuit
The network of Atlantic Ocean trade routes between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay theAtlantic system. (p. 508)
Tehran Conference
The meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943, most of which was held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II conference amongst the Big Three in which Stalin was present. It almost immediately followed the Cairo Conference (November 22-26, 1943) and preceded both the Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945) and the Potsdam Conference (July 17 - August 2, 1945). The central aim of the Tehran conference was to plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, and the chief discussion was centered on the opening of a second front in Western Europe.
Free men who were not slaves, but didn't own land
Marbury vs Madison
Supreme court case that established the principle of "judicial review"- the idea that the supreme court had the final authority to determine constitutionality.
defended Jackson about going into Florida
John Q Adams
New Jersey
The lands between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers were granted by the Duke of York to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkley. Settled by the Dutch and Puritans, Newark was the first settlement. Originally divided into East and West, the two sections were united as a single royal colony in 1702.
A privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation. (p. 503)
Starving Time
name for the winter of 1609- severe famine
Mexican American War
War between America and Mexico from 1845 to 1848 that culminates with the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which the U.S. purchases Texas, California, and New Mexico.
Yarrow Mamout
a devout Muslim brought to Maryland as a slave, he eventually fought his freedom and settled in Georgetown
chattel slavery
the ownership of a human being as property
joint stock companies
allowed to colonize america to expand business
Vice-President Burr
Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
Hidden Imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since ca. 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time. (p. 532)
Sargon of Akkad
A conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who took over all of Mesopotamia and created the world's first empire by destroying all the Sumerian city-states
Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.
Civil Works Administration
1933-1934, work relief, put people to work on temporary projects
Power of the Purse
The constitutional power given to congress to manipulate and control the actions of others by withholding funding.
writs of assistance
licenses that gave the British the power to search any place they suspected of hiding smuggled goods
Weaknesses of this first form of American government included: single-chamber Congress, Congress had no power to tax, no executive or legislative branch, unanimous vote needed to amend laws, etc.
Articles of Confederation
Cuban missile Crisis
The Bay of pigs nuclear misslesin Cuba quarantee of cuba no ships to come or leave cuba
1464. Viet Cong
Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.
Paris Peace Agreement
The agreement for ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam, signed in paris during 1973. After a whole decade, Vietnam finally indicated that it wished to cease fire with the US. The agreement was a success.
Battle of Omdurman
British victory over the Mahdi in the Sudan in 1898. General Kitchener led a mixed force of British and Egyptian troops armed with rapid-firing rifles and machine guns. (p. 730)
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
New Opportunities for Women
Many women gained right to keep dowry
Managed households, Supervised education of children,
Cultural patrons,Nuns
756. Phillip Armour (1832-1901)
Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.
Black Hawk War
War against the Sac and Fox Indians from the Mississippi, Black Hawk, the Indian Chief rallied and tried to defeat them, but after a lack of support in Illinois he admitted defeat
893. Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden
He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
open door policy
developed by john hay so that we could gain influence in china
What two classes of person make up competing theories for governmental involvement?
1. Classic Liberalism
2. Utilitarianism
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
1521. Moon race, Neil Armstrong
July 20, 1969 - Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, beating the Communists in the moon race and fulfilling Kennedy's goal. Cost $24 billion.
Things to know: rise of political parties during Washington - name 4
• election of John Adams
• issues that led to Republican opposition
• relations with France and the Alien and Sedition Acts and Republic response
• Jefferson and the "Revolution 1800
992. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
Year of Sputnik
Government ruled by religion.
the act of persecuting.
a two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle without seats, used in ancient times in races, warfare, or processions
Date: Emancipation Proclamation in US
Charles Martel's grandson; temporarily re-est. central imperial rule & expanded his empire greatly
Virginia Resolves
"no taxation with representation," introduced by Patrick Henry
chief of major indian confederation right by jamestown- no less than 40 tribes- there on bad terms with colonizers
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion
President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can be best described as...
a. Ill thought out
b. Rash and hotheaded
c. The only possible option
d. A strageic blunder
e. A middle of th
kwame Nkrumah
founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first priesident.
Spot Resolutions
Congressman Abraham Lincoln (Spotty Lincoln) supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Cyrus McCormick
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)
Warren Harding
Weak but affable president; appointeees looted and cheated the government; failure as president
Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
established importance of skaptical review of all recieved wisdom
Rene Descartes
Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while stilla small boy in 1912
Holding someone against their will, as in holding Japanese-American citizens without cause in WWII
Thomas Paine
The revolutionary author of Common Sense. His protest called for independence and called for the creation of a democratic republic and that all leaders should derive their power from popular consent.
policy of equipping and training of the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves
slush fund
An unaccountable sum of money available for questionable or corrupt purposes.
Thomas Hutchinson
The Boston Royalist governor that orders ships to stay before the Boston Tea Party of 1773
goveren india after the first decades of independence
Emperor of China, son of Kangxi expanded China's bounderies extensively. Would only rule for sixty years so as to not dishonor his grandfather.
a book composed by Brahman priests that contains verses and Sanskrit poetry
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese dynasty founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu that ruled from 1603 until 1868 when it was toppled by the Meiji Restoration; rigid social structure; isolated Japan from the outside world; reigned over a uniquely Japanese cultural golden age of uniquely Japanese art; rights of women almost non-existent; moved the Japanese capital to Edo
Helsinki Accords
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
system of knotted strings used by Incas in place of writing and accounting
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon. (p. 295)
monroe doctrine
proclamed europeon nations out of latin america
305. Convention of 1800
A conference between the U.S. and France which ended the naval hostilities.
Grants of Indian laborors made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America
a sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies.
water cure
American troops used this method of torture to extract information from rebellious Filipinos.
Estates General
gov't in place before Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the formation of the National Assembly
Areas of flat, low plains, near the seacoast of Virginia and North Carolina
a Christian ministry of much zeal and the enthusiasm, emphasizing personal faith and conversion rather than ritual
83. Quitrents
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
U-2 Incident
after US/SU didn't agree to "open skies" , US spy plane crashed in Russia, increased tensions
couldn't be saved by good actions, so the truly saved need not obey the laws of God or man
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.
water wheel
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. It was used in many parts of the world but was especially common in Europe from 1200 to 1900. (p. 398)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
nation- state
a sovereign state inhabited by a relatively homogeneous group of people who share a feeling of common nationality.
Boston Tea Party
Protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into Boston harbor
Halfway Covenant
granted partial membership in chuch to second generation of Puritans because first generation were afraid they would turn away from religion completely
56. John Bartram (1699-1777)
America’s first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
Hoover stimson doctrine
stimson, secretary of state under hoover sent identical notes stating that US would not recognize any treaty or agreement that would impair chinas territory, US. rights in china, the political situation in china, or the open door policy, 2 japan& china
Knights of Labor
accepted all types of laborers, races, genders, skills; died after Haymarket Riot
Weimar Republic
The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.
202. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles' weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn't keep the country united. The Articles' only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
loss or the removal of the right to vote
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Who was the first creator of an empire in Mesopotamia?
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
Library of Ashurbanipal
A large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the sixth century B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. (98)
sante fe trail
a route from Independece, Missouri to Sante Fe, New Mexico. Used by traders in the early and mid 1800's.
Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
What was the Marxist split in Russia?
1007. Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948)
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the new religious order formed during the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
26. Roosevelt drafted this act when he noticed that industrial growth had destroyed the natural resources of the land. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation
Newlands Reclamation Act
three mile island
1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights of the people as believed by Enlightenment thinker adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution; similar to The Declaration of Independence in the American Revolution
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Great white fleet
sent in order to demonstrate US naval power. Roosevelt sent the fleet around the world.
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
King George III
• King after the 7 Years War • Repealed the stamp duties • Refused to "accept the olive branch" from the moderates of the revolution thus stregthening the radicals, full on war resulted • Declared war on France • Divided England with his obsession with winning the war
Cohens v. Virginia
based on a state court case on the sale of lottery tickets, it gave the Supreme court the right to review State Court decisions
Silver or Single Whip System
The Single Whip Reforms of 1581, imposed by Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng ordered that all land taxes in China must be paid in silver. This reform monetized the Chinese tax system.
176. Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined/transcontinental line
Central Pacific and Union Pacific lines met at Ogden, Utah, creating the first transcontinental railroad line.
Voting granted to church members -
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
Pacific Railroad Act of July 1, 1862
Authorized the construction of the transcontinental, the amount of track laid and the land that went with it made the transcontinental the single-most largest landowners in the West
Nueces River vs. Rio Grande
One of the first settlers to scout the area was Cpt. Blas María de la Garza Falcón in 1766. From before the end of the Texas Revolution, Mexico recognized that the Nueces River was historically the border of Texas from the rest of the country. However, the Republic of Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border with Mexico, citing the Treaty of Velasco signed by Mexican President Santa Anna who agreed to the Rio Grande border after losing the Battle of San Jacinto. This dispute continued after the annexation of Texas, and was one of the causes of the Mexican-American War. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the dispute, with Mexico recognizing under pressure the Rio Grande as its northern border.
68. SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
St. Francis
Fear of foreigners
Last agreed upon Caliph
reformist movement among islamic berbers of northern africa; penetrated sub-saharan africa
divided country
situation after korean war
a severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
the art of refining metals
Heir to the technique of historia-'investigation'-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. (128)
Sigmund Freud
Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. He argued that psychology problems were cause by traumas, especially sexual experience in early childhood, that were repressed later in life. His ideas caused considerable controversy among psychologists and in general public. Although, views on repressed sexuality are still very influential.
The extreme northeastern sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk. (p. 551)
Butcher Weyler
General Valeriano Weyler; confined civilians in some areas to hastily prepared concentration camps where they died by the thousands because of disease and malnutrition
Archduke Ferninand
Heir to Austria-Hungary's throne. Killed in Sarajevo by a Serbian, his death is often known as the start of WWI
A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia. (p. 284)
the Sufis
aggressive missionaries trying to convert people to islam.
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century. (p. 366)
Harlem Renaissance of 1920s
cultural black movement
appealing to or engaging the intellect:
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. (682)
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
Catholic Reformation
religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Francisco Madero
early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles
Organization formed in 1949 as a military alliance of western European and North American states against the Soviet Union and its east European allies. (See also Warsaw Pact.)(p. 832)
a federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them
The spread of cutural traditions from one area or group of people to another.
Giuseppe Mazzini was the first person that tried to unify all of Italy. He preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people. His brand of democratic republicanism seemed too radical for the people. Austria smashed Mazzini's republicanism in 1848.
group of people from Hungary who invaded western Europe
Andrew Mellon
Treasury Secretary whose tax policies favored the rapid expansion of capital investment; thought that the burdensome taxes inherited from the war were distasteful; his theory was that such high levies forced the rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in the factories that provided prosperous payrolls; also argued that high taxes not only discouraged business but, in doing so, also brought a smaller net return to the Treasury than moderate taxes; friend of millionaires; helped engineer a series of tax reductiuons from 1921 to 1926; Congress followed his lead by reducing taxes as well; his spare the rich policies thus shifted much of the tax burden from the wealthy to the middle-income groups; lionized by conservatives as the "greatest secretary of the Treasury since Hamilton"; remains a controversial figure; reduced the national debt by $10 billion, but some say he could've reduced it even more due to the country's time of prosperity; also accused of indirectly encouraging the bull market; if he had absorbed more of the national income in taxes, there would have been less money left for frenzied speculation; his refusal to do so typified the single-mindedly probusiness regime that dominated the political scence throughout the postwar decade
Underlying foundations of a state or economy, especially its transport and communication systems
staple food for Native Americans; New World to Old
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Subsistance Farming
self sufficiency farming in which farmers produce just enough to feed their families, (only enough to survive, no excess)
Ku Klux Klan
Group that increased exponentially during the early 1920s, resembled the antiforeign "nativist" movements of the 1850s
fuck the white people (Powatan's Bro -> blunt)
William Howard Taft
presidency characterized by trust busting and strengthening the insterstate commerce commission
most famous poet of the tang era; blended images if the mundane world with philosophical musings
Camp David Acccord
(JEC) 1979, Anwar el-Sadat (egypt), Menachem Begin (Israel) and Carter (US) talked about rejecting war, and also Israel aggred to return all of Sinai Peninsula to Egypt within three years, treaty signed in Washington
freedom summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
of, pertaining to, or like the feudal system, or its political, military, social, and economic structure.
Benjamin Singleton
a former slave that was a self-proclaimed rescuer of blacks from the hardships of sharecropping and tenant farming. At his urging, many former slaves went to Kansas (a free state). Didn't quite work b/c many had to hire themselves out in order to make a living.
Louisiana Purchase
1803 (TJ) , Robert Livingston, James Monroe, territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
The "Lion Prince"; a member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died about 1260.
Georges Boulanger
A French soldier who was among France's Third Republic members who attacked and destroyed the Paris Commune. He also introduced various reforms all on the path for better rights and benefits of soldiers.
Eli Whitney
Built the cotton gin: separated cotton seed from fiber. Introduced interchangeable parts (originally for muskets); basis for mass production.
Roman Principate
A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps ('first citizen') adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship. (p. 151)
John Crittenden
A Senator of Kentucky, that fathered two sons: one became a general in the Union Army, the other a general in the Confederate Army. He is responsible for the Crittenden Compromise. This augments the fact that the war was often between families, and its absurdity. Kentucky and other states were split up between the Union and Confederacy, and both in the North and South sent people to the other side. This makes it clear that the war is primarily over slavery.
Charles Town
busiest seaport in the South; located in Carolinas; sons of English aristocrats came for money, French and Protestants came for religious toleration
States' Rights
a belief that the federal government should be limited so that the individual states may exercise more power' it supports the concept of state as opposed to federal sovereignty
john hay
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
the correct term for a person who makes maps
The "Bull Moose" Campaign
Roosvelt's campaing under the Progressive Party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson. It was called "Bull Moose" because Roosevelt said he felt as strong as a bull moose.
a group of families or households, as among the Scottish Highlanders, the heads of which claim descent from a common ancestor:
Browder v. Gayle
(1956) Ended segregation in the public transportation system after the Montgomery Bus Boycott
edict of milan
a ruling by Constantine that allowed Christians to openly practice their faith in the Roman empire.
French and Indian War
War fought over territorial expansion into Ohio Valley and Plains territories and ability to trade in these regions; French and Indians fought against British and American colonists; lasted from 1754 to 1763.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II. (p. 795)
Taiwan Quemoy Matsu****
(DDE) 1953, Eisenhower said that they would aid Nationalist China, but if they acted against Taiwan, they would repel
James Fenimore Cooper
An American author of the early nineteenth century, known for his works set on the American frontier, such as the series The Leatherstocking Tales and The Last of the Mohicans.
Governor George Wallace
Governor of Alabama; pledged to oppose integration and to prevent enrollment of blacks at state university;; won popularity for his views.
Berlin and Milan Decrees
Napoleon; stops neutral US ships before they reach England
XYZ Affair
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
John Winthrop
Led a group of Puritans to North America and was elected governor by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The Cattle Kingdom
characterized by the cowboy and the cattle baron developed on the Great Plains
251. Supporters of the Constitution
Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
The Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
Separatist (Pilgrims)
argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
1489. Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Jay's Treaty 1795
Gave the British 18 months to withdraw from the western forts and called for America to repay debts incurred to England during the Revolutionary war.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on December 24, 1814, in Ghent (modern day Belgium), it was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Schenck v United States
A United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to freedom of speech against the draft during World War I. Ultimately, the case established the "clear and present danger" test.
1044. Roosevelt's Osawatomie, Kansas speech
Teddy Roosevelt's speech given in Kansas on his Square Deal and "Big Stick" foreign policy. Roosevelt said, "speak softly and carry a big stick."
Greek Philosophy - Aristotle
- student of Socrates- teacher of Plato- father of modern rocketry
212. Constitution: Majority whip
The person who tells members of the majority party in Congress how they should vote.
Roosevelt Panic (Panic of 1907)
Brief but sharp economic downturn of 1907, blamed by conservatives on the supposedly dangerous president.
Sir Edmund Andros
Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England
1399. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
Created by Republican Congress members under Ms. Overta Culp Hobby of Texas. Regulated through committees.
134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I - most important part was the forced blame on Germany and other allies
Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner
These three men attempted to lead a band of African Americans in a rebellion, but their attempts failed.
One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was
the rise of large department stores
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen
Written by Olympe de Gouges it was basically a rewriting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man to include women.
Incan emperor
Tuskegee Institute founded
Vietnam in 1968 election
the practice, especially in international relations, of taking a dispute to the verge of conflict in the hope of forcing the opposition to make concessions (B.255)
Founding of the Yuan Dynasty
Frankish Empire
Charlemagne's extended empire: Germany, France, northern Spain, and most o f Italy- became known as.
English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom
Headed Christian churches and regional centers and supervised the activities of other churches within the jurisdictional area.
special merchant class; dominated both local and long distance trade
which country specialized in having the most advanced engineering schools and scientfic institutes
the pure concentrated essence of anything
Headright System
Encouraged importation of servants- gave 50 acres of land per servant to master
leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution
predecessor language of English and most of the European langugaes
A large scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor
31. Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh became a legendary protagonist in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
"honest little ______"; love this country, it struggled along making payments until the last of its debt was erased in 1976
Descendent of Guptas in India; briefly constructed a loose empire in northern India between 616 and 657 c.e.
Interstate Highways Act
WHO: Eisenhower/ US
WHAT:huge public works program (42 thousand miles of highway) It links America (drive threws) and makes the suburbs more populated. It also makes the railways decline. They make them to be able to evacuate citizens quickly incase of nuclear bomb.
WHY: It created a lot of jobs, created an escape route, and allowed people to move to the suburbs
John C. Fremont
first Republican candidate for pres.
Austria Hungary/Germany/Italy/Ottomans
What 4 countries/empires consist of the Triple Alliance? (separate each country with a /)
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Buddahism was spread to china by...
Foreign Merchants
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Puritan colony; active government participation by citizens, Puritan leaders had large, but not absolute, influence; endorsed separation of powers
The radical majority faction of the Russian Socialist party that seized power during the 1917 Revolution.
American Revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, this new form of economic imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics.
(17th and 18th C.) people to government relationship, no more divine right or mandate of heaven, thomas hobbes=people are greedy & warlike, john locke said everyone was born equal with unalienable rights, gov was to protect people, jean-jacques rousseau=society should be majority rule foundation, helped shape the US constitution
River-Valley Civilizations
The first civilizations were labeled the river-valley civilizations. This was because they all developed alongside of major rivers in order to secure an adequate water supply to aid agricultural production. The earliest river-valley civilizations began in the Middle East and flourished for many centuries. They created a basic set of tools, intellectual concepts such as writing and mathematics, and political forms that would persist and spread to other parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Most of the river-valley civilizations were in decline by 1000 B.C.E
Ali'i nui
definition: a chief or noble (hereditary) in Polynesian tribes
significance: demonstrated hierarchy in Polynesian societies
John Peter Zenger
German-American printer and publisher who was arrested for libel after criticizing a government official. He/She was found NOT guilty
Qin Dynasty:
dynasty that established the first great Chinese empire
Khrushchev, Nikita
Stalin's successor as head of USSR; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and antagonism of Stalinists led to downfall.
Maryland Act of Tolerance
granted religious freedom for christians and allowed them to worship as they pleased
John Locke's Theories
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government.
Jonathan Edwards
One of the predominant leaders during the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He put emotion into his sermons and often spoke to terrify the crowds with his accusations that they all were going to go to hell.
Independent Treasury
Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created an independent treasury that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation and denied to the state banks as revenue.
Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
Except Parte Milligan
Ruled that Military tribunals could not try civilians, even during war
California Gold Rush
gold seekers increase CA population from 14K to 100K
Suleyman the Magnificent
Ottoman Sultan (1512-20) expansion in Asia and Europe, helped Ottomans become a naval power, challegned Christian vessles througout the Mediterranian. 16th Century. The "lawgiver" who was so culturally aware yet exacted murder on two of his sons and a grandson in order to prevent civil war. Ottoman.
Julius Caesar
Part of the first triumvirate who eventually became "emperor for life". Chose not to conquer Germany. Was assassinated by fellow senators in 44 B.C.E.
Boston Port Act
Britain closed the harbor as punishment until the damages were paid
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649 by Oliver Cromwell
independent invention
development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances
William Tennent
a Presbyterian revivalist in the Great Awakening. He set u p a "Log College" in Pennsylvania for the education of ministers to serve the Scottish-Irish Presbyterians living around Philadelphia
What was the salt march?
Ghandi's protest against british
Sectional Tariff*
1824, (JMon)was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods., Calhoun thought South suffered
Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
March on Washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
Queen Anne's War
War in 1702 between England versus France and Spain.
Boer War - British in control of South AFrica
(shEE oong nU) also known as the Huns; horse nomads responsible for the disruption of Chinese, Gupta and Roman civilizations.
Post-War Labor
-GI Bill of Rights
-aid and housing to veterans
Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
A major book in Hinduism that is often in the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised.
Zimmerman Note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Bubonic Plague
1/3 of all Europe's pop died, spread by rats, brought by sailors to Crimea, work shortage, wages for skilled laborers soared.
Freedom Riders
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
only state that did not attend the constitutional convention
Rhode island
Adjusted Compensation Act
Act giving each former soldier a paid-up insurance policy due in twenty years, adding $3.5 billion to the cost of WWI
Republican party platform
A group of former Whigs convened and decided to form a new political party. The Republican Party was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Eventually, Whigs and members of fringe parties, like the Free Soilers and Know-Nothings, would become Republicans. Republicans differed among themselves in regards to the major issues of the day; for instance, some opposed slavery's extension but not its existence. Meanwhile, others supported complete abolition of slavery. The one thing all Republicans stood for was progress. This meant the party supported urbanization, new technologies, and free homesteads for farmers.
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Wrote the book "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History," which argued that the control of the sea was the key to world dominance
time order 1
first acts are passed by parliament to regulate colonial trade based on mercantilist priciples
10. Ice Age
Period of time where Earth was covered partly in ice
Selective Service Act*
(FDR) 1940, first peace time draft, 21 through 35 years old
nomadic invaders often had military advantages over armies of empires because
they were more skilled as horsemen
Hundred Days Reforms
Led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao . Established Imperial University of Beijing and an all new education system. They innitialted many new Chiefs for offices. They also made a government budget. It ended without much success by Cixi.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
An act that prohibited all further immigration from China.
107. Queen Anne's War, 1702-1713
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.
Popular View of Fed. Gov. in 19th Century
Small Gov, non intervention, Laissez Faire, Jefferson ideals
Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws, Plessy Vs. Ferguson
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves. Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
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