AP World History Vocab 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1300
Mexica/aztectenochitilan
Chesapeake Colonies
Virginia, Maryland
Vichy
French collaborationist government est. in 1940 in southern French armies be the Germans.
When was Lincoln elected?
1860
Russel Conwell
Pro-business clergyman
"Acres of Diamonds" speech-criticized the poor
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
laissez-faire
noninterference by government in private enterprises.
Dollar Diplomacy
government would protect America's foreign investments with any force needed, under president Taft
True
True or False: Democracy in Athens
Impressment
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
1585
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed settlement on Roanoke Island
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Gerrymandering
Redrawing voting district lines in order to get certain percentage in House and Senate
Lord Sheffield
"unlikely founding father"; Foreign minister of England, commanded "dumping" to oppress our economy
Chavin
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills
pachucos
Street gangs joined by Mexican- American teenagers. These were particularly distinctive because of their members' style of dress, which whites considered outrageous.
metallurgy
science of extracting and refining metal from raw ore; began in Middle East and China between 4000 and 3000 b.c.e.
New England Confederation
New England colonists (Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth) formed this in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
Phoenician traders
A maritime civilization of the Mediterranean that developed extensive trade and communication networks as well as an early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E).
Name where the foreigners were permitted to do business in China during the Ming era.
Yangtze Region
800. Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
horace mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Dawes Plan of 1924
"American-sponsored arrangement for rescheduling German reparations payments that only temporarily eased the international debt tangle of the 1920s."
Frederick Taylor
engineer that effectively lead the Efficiency Movement
anwar sadat
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer and mathematician of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, known as the founder of celestial mechanics
Feudalism
the social and political system used in Europe during the Middle Ages that operated through a system of mutual pledges of service and subservience for benefit
Celts
Peoples sharing a common language and culture that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. After 500 B.C.E. they spread as far as Anatolia in the east, Spain and the British Isles in the west, onquered by Romans (90)
Pulque
fermented Mexican drink from juice of various agave plants especially the maguey
Panchatantra
a story collection in the Gupta period;
Frederick Douglass
runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
American Revolution
Period when 13 colonies gained independence from England. Based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. Protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main British armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the French, the Treaty of Paris was signed.
 
 
 
 
209. Constitution: Seniority
 
 
 
 
Part of the committee system. A member of Congress in a committee moves up in rank in that committee as long as he is reelected.
Hammurabi's Law Code
Developed by Babylonian king Hammurabi (1792-1750 bce)Very harsh (death & mutilation)Favored upper classesInnovation because it was consistent set of regulations rather than arbitrary will of ruler.
axiom
a self-evident truth that requires no proof.
Sugar Act
- 1764 initiated by Grenville a) Cracked down on smuggling of molasses and placed duties on wine, coffee, sugar b) Greatest revenue -> molasses (3 pence duty)
Cultural Revolution
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Individualism
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence - Expressed through "Democracy in America"
What is the most important relationship in feudalism?
Lord and Vassal
William Miller
A self-educated farmer from New York. Convinced from his studies that Christ will return in 1843, from his studies of the Scriptures.
Mexican American War
War between Mexicans and Americans over the annexation of Texas
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Spaniard who discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513 on the coast of Panama and claimed for the king all of the coasts which touched the ocean
Johnathan Edwards
pastor who ignited Great Awakening in Northampton, Mass.; told people to depend on God, not good works for salvation
Theodosius
Emperor of the Roman Empire who made Christianity the official religion of the empire.
Paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period. (p. 11)
Domino Theory
Belief that if one nation in Southeastern Asia should come under Communist rule, the others would soon follow
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty
Robert La Follette
Progressive governor and senator who established the "Wisconsin Idea" that reformed the state through direct primaries, tax reform, and anticorruption legislation. He was the Progressive Party's presidential nominee in 1924
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
6. Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
"Old lights"
Nickname for people who didn't like emotionalism and claimed it was not scriptual
yellow journalist who competed with Joseph Pulitzer
William Randolph Hearst
Coin's Financial School
1894 work published by William Hope Harvey campaigning for free silver with beautiful woodcuts. It was enormously popular. It nursed the idea that there was a conspiracy to elevate gold above silver.
New England Primer
Schoolbook used by the New England Colonists to teach reading and writing
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Elites
A group or class of persons or a member of such a group or class, enjoying superior intellectual, social, or economic status.
Knights of Labor
the first national labor union; formed in 1869
"Waving the bloody shirt"
The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.
Tang Revival
The Sui Dynasty and its successor whom this is named after restored the Chinese imperial impulse four centuries after the decline of the Han, extending control along the silk route as far as the Tien Shan mountain range and the arid Ferghana basin. Trade flourished and China finally reached its western limits when its forces were defeated by the imperial armies of the Muslim Abbasid Empire at the Talas River
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
Korematsu v. United States
(1944) Japanese American was convicted of not reporting to internment camp. Court upheld the president's power to intern probable threats during wartime
war with mexico
occurred due to annexation of Texas. US won. Got California, Nevada, Utah, NM, Arizona and Texas. [for sure]
Maysville Road Bill
Federal funding for a Kentucky road was vetoed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830. The bill would have authorized the government to buy stock in a road from Maysville to Lexington, which would make it completely in Kentucky. Jackson was completely against the federal government participating in internal improvements but he also called it unconstitutional because it could be viewed as a purely local undertaking., When: 1830 Where: Kentucky Significance: The Maysville Road Bill was proposed by Henry Clay and would call for the federal government to invest $150,000 into the stock of the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Road Company, which was going to build a 60-mile road from Maysville to Lexington. Andrew Jackson, whom opposed Clay, vetoed the bill because it was not how federal money should be spent and because the road was only within the state lines of Kentucky.
1234. Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by conservatives to defend business interests and promote the open shop.
Whehen was the mexican civil war? When was the constitution?
1910-1920; 1917
What was "bleeding Kansas"
the fighting in Kansas between proslavery and Free-Soilers
Viet Cong
Name given to by Diem regime to the communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam; reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958
Put the Persian empires in correct chronological order: Seleucids, Sassanid, Parthians, Achaemenids.
Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sassanid
Newport and Charleston
the two major slave trading ports in America
The Duma
a body set up by Czar Nicholas to represent the Russian people that was then quickly disbanded when it criticized him
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa. (p. 498)
wilson gorman tariff
Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
Protestant Work Ethic
belief that you should live a good, moral, ethical, religious life, work hard, and get involved in the affairs of society
Compromise of 1850
made CA free, ended slave trade in DC, strengthened Fugitive Slave Law; by Henry Clay to restore sectional peace
Boy Scouts of America
This group, due to its popularity with urban youth, became the country's largest youth organization.
what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire
spiralling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages
1117. Election of 1920: candidates, issues
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
The Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made hi ma free man. The U.S. Supreme Court decided he couldn’t sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
trading route between China and Africa
What was the importance of Indian ports Cambay, Calicut, Quilon?
1110. Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty
Created the League of Nations.
Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
Philip II
...
Pope Leo III
...
Election of 1816
James Monroe
iconoclasm
religious controversy within the byzantine empire; emperor attempted to suppress veneration icons
Confucius
influential Chinese thinker and philosopher, whom had a collection of quotes after his death.
Bolsheviks
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
Tainos
prominent people in the carribbean
Plato
Socrates' most famous student. He writes "The Republic" and wanted a philosoper kind (so he could make smart decisions).
dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists
corporations
groups of individuals authorized by law to act as a single entity; a business owned by many investors
Wilson
Democrat, Federal Reserve Act, World War I, 18th & 19th Amendments, Red Scare, 2 Terms, Sacco & Vanzetti
Shintoism
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshipped numberous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits
Unitarians
encouraged people to emphasize feeling rather than dogma
Italy
European country where trade first began to revive
Songhay
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali (1464-1492). (p. 340)
 
 
 
 
272. Report on Manufactures
 
 
 
 
 
A document submitted to Congress, which set up an economic policy to encourage industry.
complicate
to make complex, intricate, involved, or difficult:
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
Lenin
founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Jesuits
the Society of Jesus. A religious order founded in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola. An important event of the Catholic Reformation. They helped stem the Protestant tide by their teaching and preaching.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Delhi Sulatanate
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders. (p. 374)
Henry Kissinger
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923)
Justinian
was Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, hesought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire.One of the most important figures of Late Antiquity and the last emperor to speak Latin as a first language, his rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Eastern Roman Empire. The impact of his administration extended far beyond the boundaries of his time and domain. His reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the empire".This ambition was expressed in the partial recovery of the territories of the Western Roman Empire, including the city of Rome itself. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building programme yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia, which was to be the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity for many centuries.
Jacquerie-
a French peasant revolt based on mythical French laboring peasant "Jacques"
Erasmus
counceled kings and popes; wrote In Praise of Folly
George Washington
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799). (p. 581)
Sans-Culottes
Paris citizen who supported the French Revolution
How many people traveled together in hunting bands?
20-30
revolution
an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.
Shakers
among the longest-lived sects; led by Mother Ann Lee; in the 1770s to set up the first of a score or so of religious communities; attained about 6,000 members in 1840, but were virtually extinct by 1940 because they prohibited marriage and sexual relations
Jomo Kenyatta
Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau. (p 823)
The family of languages spoken by people who inhabit the region of Central Africa south of the Sahara Desert is
Bantu
Oracles
Shamans or priests in Chinese society who foretold the future through interpretations of animal bones cracked by heat; inscriptions on bones led to Chinese writing
Mero?
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E. In this period Nubian culture shows more independence from Egypt and the influence of sub-Saharan Africa. (p. 71)
Conrail*
(GF) 1976, combined 7 railroads in NE US in an attempt to revitalize service, last ditch attempt to avoid outright govt ownerships and operation
nira
Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers.
embargo act 1807
under jefferson, stopped shipping to all other countries. very bad for economy
Chinggis Kahn
Mongral leaeder who conqured part of the Abissid region
Teapot Dome Scandal
when Secretary of Interior Fall persuaded Sec Nav to allow oil magnates Sinclair and Dohney to lease the Teapot Dome in Wyoming and Elk Hills in Cali, in spite of the fact that these valuable oil fields had been set aside by Congress for the Navy's use. Turns out bribes were given and received. Supreme Court revoked the leases.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
(FDR following death) nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Andrew Carnegie
the "Steel King," who was the mastermind behind the steel industry. Carnegie bought out hundreds of iron-ore supplying towns to be directly fed to his huge factories. Through his business practices, he was the first to incorporate "vertical integration." He aimed at improving efficiency and controlling the quality of his product throughout all the stages. He eliminated middleman fees. Contributed $60 million to construction of public libraries. Sold out to Morgan for 400 million dollars. Robber baron who believed the wealthy had to prove themselves morally responsible to be wealthy.
1. Chernobyl
An abandoned city in northern Ukraine, in the Kiev Oblast (prvince) near the border with Belarus. The city was abandoned in 1986 due to the Chernobyl disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which is located 14.5 kilometers (9 miles) north-northwest. The power plant had been named after the city, and was located in Chernobyl Raion (district), but the city and the plant were not directly connected. At the time of power plant construction a twin city of the plant, Prypiat was built for power plant workers
George Wolf
Jelly last Jam(1992), the lifestory of new orleans jazzman
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920. (813)
10. Qing Dynasty
Sino-Japanese War. Japan wins Korea. Qing Dynasty weakened
Nova Scotia
"New Scotland" awarded in Treaty of Utrect
wilmont provisio
The Wilmot Proviso was introduced on August 8, 1846, in the United States House of Representatives as a rider on a $2 million appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican-American War. The intent of the proviso, submitted by Democratic Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. The proviso did not pass in this session or in any other session when it was reintroduced over the course of the next several years, but many consider it as the one of first events on the long slide to secession and Civil War which would accelerate through the 1850s.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
An American writer and ardent abolitionist. Stowe wrote the play Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), which condemned slavery and was widely acclaimed in the North while strongly disliked in the South 4: 1825-1865
Frederick W. Taylor
Prominent inventor and engineer who sought to eliminate wasted motion; "Father of Scientific Management"
Presidential Election of 1872
Liberal Republicans and nominated Horace Greeley and Grant
Primary source of labor in early southern colonies until the 1680's
Indentured Servants
chastity
The state or quality of being chaste. chaste is Refraining from sexual intercourse that is regarded as contrary to morality or religion; virtuous.
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners
armerigo vespucci
good map maker he was sailing for spain- sent this map back to europe when the greatest map maker in the world who makes a world map-
891. Oliver H. Kelley
Worked in the Department of Agriculture and lead the Granger Movement.
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
Greenbacks
(AL) , Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
political, social, economic
During Feudal Society in Europe, the medieval society was usually divided into three; clergy, warrior, and worker--a clear illustration of these inequalities that existed during the Feudal Society in Europe
San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
Duke's Laws
Government set up in the New York Colony which kept dutch government values....religous toleration
Reverend Thomas Hooker
leader of Boston Puritans, who swept in and took control of the Connecticut River Valley
Vietnam War
a Cold War era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. The Viet Cong, a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist-controlled common front, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region.
Young Turks
Society founded in 1889 in the Ottoman Empire; its goal was to restore the constitution of 1876 and to reform the empire.
 
 
 
 
178. July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence
 
 
 
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies’ ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
Wallow
T roll about in a lazy clumsy or helpless wat. A wet, muddy or dusty area used by animals as a sort of a bath
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism
856. James McNeill Whistler
(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known asWhistler's Mother.
Civil Rights Bill 1964
Passed Kennedy's bill as tribute to him. Ushered in a new era for the civil rights movement. Couldn't discriminate against blacks. Federal government could sue school systems that refused to desegregate.
bubonic plague
In China, one of the growing list of problems for Mongols to deal, inflation and epidemic disease. What was the name of the disease which resulted in depopulation and labor shortage?
Senate
30 yrs old, 6 yr term; used to be chosen indirectly by state legislatures, now people vote for directly (17th Amdmt)
Pollock case
With a ruling of 5-4, was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the unapportioned income taxes on interest, dividends and rents imposed by the Income Tax Act of 1894 were, in effect, direct taxes, and were unconstitutional because they violated the provision that direct taxes be apportioned. The decision was nullified in 1913 by Amendment XVI to the US Constitution.
753. Mesabi Range
A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.
Seneca Falls, July, 1848
Reaction to the "cult of domesticity" standards led to the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York. It was led by Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They re-wrote the U.S. Declaration of Independence into the Declaration of Sentiments to include women, and listed a set of grievances that women had towards men. Eleven resolutions, one of which was called women's suffrage, were adopted.
374. Convention of 1818
Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
French and Indian War
Known in Europe as the Seven Years' War, the last (1755-63) of four colonial wars fought between England and France for control of North America east of the Mississippi River.
Agustus was able to defeat his main rivals _______ and reunify the empire.
Mark Antony and Cleopatra
337. Tripolitan War (1801-1805)
Also called the Barbary Wars, this was a series of naval engagements launched by President Jefferson in an effort to stop the attacks on American merchant ships by the Barbary pirates. The war was inconclusive, afterwards, the U.S. paid a tribute to the Barbary states to protect their ships from pirate attacks.
571. Nat Turner's Insurrection
1831 - Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
Revising of Articles
55 reps from all states but RI came to revise under leadership of Washington and Hamilton.
Harry S. Truman's Party
VP - Alben W. Barkley, SS - George C Marshall, Dean Acheson
If one were to compare the societies of the Aztec and the Maya, the best characterization of thatcomparison would be that
both were agricultural societies that had substantial urban populations.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
So
Lazy.
adobe
sun-dried brick
Congress of Vienna
1815
Cixi
Ultraconservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty; supported Boxer Rebellion in 1898 as a means of driving out Westerners.
1st Century CE
Spread of Christianity
Dias
Portuguese navigator that discovered the Cape of Good Hope
British policies during the war
...
Balkan nationalism
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
Civilization
societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture; ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non-farming elites as well as merchant and manufacturing groups
Crusades
(1095-1204) armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. They brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Mesopotamia
literally "between the rivers"; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys.
Bleeding Sumner
Senator Brooks bludgeons Sumner because he delivered an insulting speech
1810s
Date: Decade when Independence in mainland Latin America began (Hint: 1__0s)
Boer War
British vs. Boers in Africa
Red Land
desert beyond the Nile River
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
peninsulares
colonists born in Europe; initially held the most powerful positions in colonial society
bhaktic cults
Groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Shiva and Vishnu.
European-style family
originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of Western Europe, featuring lare marriage, emphasis on the nuclear family, and large minority who never married
Thomas Jefferson
Opposed creation of National Bank using strict construction in the 190s as Secretary of State
Delhi Sultanate
centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders.
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Chesapeake Attack
Britain vessel attacked the American vessel, Chesapeake. AMERICANS PISSED!
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Kansas slave, Nebraska free; shattered Missouri Compromise
Constitutional Convention
constitution of today, w/ compromise b/w large and small states
Mein Kampf
Influential book Written by Adolf Hitler describing his life and ideology.
Blitzkrieg
German style of rapid attack through the use of armor and air power that was used in Poland, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France in 1939-1940
Puyi
Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912
George Whitfield
Anglican minister who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain. One of the founders of Methodism and the Evangelical movement
Francis Xavier
Spanish Jesuit missionary; worked in India in the 1540s with lowcaste and outcaste groups; made little headway among elites.
Lombards
Germanic people who had settled in northern Italy and were pushing south, threatening Rome; crushed by Charlemagne, earning him the papacy's gratitude
Referendum
(TR) passed only by being referred to the voters
Isabella of Castile
Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Crop lien system
in this system, Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The result, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Shays' Rebellion
(1786)
In western Massachusetts in 1786; when impoverished back-country farmers, who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies, attempted to enforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers; led by Captain Daniel Shays. The uprising was crushed but it left fear in the propertied class of mobs.
Quartering Act
Law passed by Britain to force colonists to pay taxes to house and feed British soldiers. Passed in the same few years as the Navigation Laws of 1763, the Sugar Act of 1764, and the Stamp Act of 1765 Stirred up even more resentment for the British. The Legislature of New York was suspended in 1767 for failing to comply with the Quartering Act.
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
Monitor vs. Merrimack
Union vs. Southern Ironclad; draw, ended wooden ships
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Deism
God is a watchmaker; The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws.
self-determination
the idea that peoples with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states
John Zenger
He was a newspaper printer who attacked a corrupt royal governor in an article. He was charged with seditious libel and hauled into court. He was defended by Andrew Hamilton who persuaded the jury by talking about how the ability of being able to exposing arbitrary power was at stake.This case was a precedent for freedom of the press and he health of democracy.
Catal Hayuk
A large neolithic city in modern Turkey. They used stone and bone for tools but died out before metal was used. It was from 6500BCE-5700BCE.
the twelve tables
The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450 B.C. that became the foundation of Roman law.
Gerald Ford/ Pardon
After Nison resigned, this new president inherited the American society in a time of distrust. He controlled a republic that no longer had faith in their government. He became less popular with this event, in which he said that Nixon was granted full and free forgiveness and prosecution immunity for his involvement in Watergate.
Two-state solution
envisions two separate states in the Western portion of the historic region of Palestine, one Jewish and another Arab to solve the Israel-Palestine conflict.
Home Owners Loan Act
(FDR) 1934, refinancing mortgages at lower rates, preventing foreclosure of home mortgages
Pugachev Rebellion
During 1770s in reign og Catherine the Great; led by Cossack Emelian Pugacher, who claimed to be the legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasantry unrest during the 18th century and thereafter
The Federalist
A series of 85 newspaper essays penned by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. It defended the rights of political minorities against majority tyranny, and it prevented a stubborn minority from blocking well-considered measures that the majority believed necessary for the national interest.
royal african company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa. (p. 507)
Alexander the Great
son and successor of Philip II; conquered Persian empire and advanced to the borders of India; attempted to combine Greek and Persian culture.
Executive Order 9981
Ended segregation in armed forces. (by Truman's command)
Civil Rights
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality
Treaty of Nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws; this treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws; one of these were Hong Kong.
Boss Tweed
Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC
limited monarchy (constitutional monarchy)
king shared power with a parliament
ponce de leon
1. explored florida on behalf of spain.
2. was searching for the foutain of youth.
his dictionary did much to promote the American language
noah webster
Count Camillo di Cavour
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
JP Morgan
stopped the run on the gold supply by selling bonds to Europe
Sinking of the Panay
Japanese sink US ship, apology is accepted
hold
a tactic by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill is brought to the floor; this stops the bill from coming to the floor until the hold is removed
Major Politcal Issues passed by Congress 1877-1892
Civil Service Reform
Control of Trusts
The Coinage of Silver
Tariffs
National Service Trust Act
(WJC) college = everyone, high school graduates volunteer to earn minimum wage, affordable student loans directly by govt.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811.
one similarity of the aztec maya and incan empires is that they...
maintained democratic political systems
5.6 populism, people's party, 1889-1896
rose in late 1800s, rights for farmers and workers, 8 hour workday, less immigration. In 1892, Weaver runs for president, anti-corporation "monied interests", concerned with small money circulation, anti-protective tariff
The massive stone palace at Nan Madol was located
on pohnpei in the Caroline Islands
What happened because of the terms of the Treaty of paris after the rev war
The miss river became the western boundary of the US
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