AP World History: Flash Cards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Spot Resolutions
Abraham Lincoln's resolutions regarding the Mexican-American War. Lincoln challenged Polk to point out on a map the SPOT where "American Blood Was Spilled On American Soil."
Persian Wars
Fought between Greeks and Achaemenid-led to demise of the empire; began when Ionian Greek cities revolted against their governors. Greeks believed the Persian were uncivilized. Herodotus, the great sources of knowledge of the history of the wars. Persian use of unlimited manpower and resources earned them the reputation as one of the greatest militaries in history. Delian League formed to discourage further Persian aggression. Darius put down rebellions and reasserted Achaemenid power but ultimately lost to the Athenian army of 10000 men at Battle of Marathon.
Jacksonian Democracy
Jackson wanted universal male suffrage, meaning the extension of the right to vote to all white males, regardless of if they owned property or not. Jacksonian Democracy is also characterized by a strong presidency.
Vodun
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti. (p. 659
Neolithic Era--Origins
-earliest evidence of sedentary agriculture dates to between 10,000 and 8000 B.C.E. -Called New Stone Age (8000-5000 B.C.E.), the origins of agricultural society -Domestication of animals and cultivation of crops
Confucius
Lived in China during the wrring states period and sought to resotre order to China, A strong-willed man often disagreed with the Chinese government. Left province of Lu in search of a change at promotion, traveled for 10 years, and returned fruitless and ided five years later. An educator and a polictical adviser. Students recorded his teachings in the Analects, which has had a large impact on Chinese government and culture. Believed in five constant relationships-between parent and hcild, husband and wife, older sibling and younger sibling, older firend and younger firend, and ruler and subject-each person in the relationshi p has a responshiblily to the other; one was uperior and other inferior.
Constitutional Convention
Originally called to modify the Articles of Confederation, the Constitutional Convention ended up shaping the constitution and submitting it for ratification.
Roger Williams
Puritan who originally taught that church and state should be separate. He was banished from his Salem Bay settlement and went on to found Rhode Island, the first colony to allow free exercise of religion.
Popular Sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty means that the territories themselves would decide, by vote, whether to allow slavery in their borders.
William Penn
Quaker who established Pennsylvania. Penn established liberal policies towards religious freedoms and civil liberties. Penn also attempted to act more civilly towards the Native Americans in his territory.
Indies piece
Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave. (p. 643)
John Withrop
The governor of the Massachusetts Bay and gave a speech on the colony's utopian goals.
Rhode Island
Only New England Colony to practice relgious tolerance.
Zoroastrianism
A religion based on the teachings of Zarathustra, who left his family at the age of twenty in search of wisdom; after ten years he proclaimed that visions revealed to him and supreme god, whom he called Aura Mazda; this supreme being had chosen him to be his prophet and spread his message. Major belief: the material world in a blessing, teachings of Aura Mazda allow enjoyment of everything the world has to offer( wealth, sexual pleasure, and social status)-but in moderation. Influence of Zoroastrian religion can be found in Judaism and Christianity, for example, the concept of good and evil.
Sugar Act
Passed in 1764, established a number of new duties on goods in the colonies.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Application of popular sovereignty to the territory of Kansas. Kansas became known as "bleeding Kansas" because of conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in the territories. This act essentially repealed the Compromise of 1820, which established the 36''30' parallel as the northern boundary of slavery possible in the territories. It renewed sectional tensions that had been somewhat resolved by the Compromise of 1850.
Navigation Acts
Passed between 1651 and 1673, the navigation acts required colonists to buy goods from England, and to sell certain products only to England. Sought to established wide-ranging English control over New World commerce.
Declaratory Act
Asserted British right to tax and legislate in all cases anywhere in the colonies. It was passed immediately after the withdrawal of the Stamp Act.
Anne Hutchinson
Advocate of antinomanism, which is the belief that faith and God's grace, not following moral law and preforming good deeds, is what is required for Salvation. She challenged Puritan beliefs, was put on trial for Heresy, convicted, and banished.
Border Ruffians
People who crossed the boarder into Kansas to vote for slavery in the territory. Some border ruffians attacked and killed some abolitionists in the anti-slavery leaning town of Lawrence, Kansas.
First Continental Congress
Gathered a list of Colonial Grievances, encouraged boycotts of British goods, and represented a major step towards independence.
Middle Passage
Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th—18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture. (p. 654)
Hominids
Appeared 3 to 4 million years ago in southern and eastern Africa. Humanlike creatures called primates. Mary and Louis Leakey excavated hominid fossils in the great Rift Valley. Lucy,an australopithecine fossil, found in 1974. Three major differences from earlier primates: bipedalism (gives ability to walk upright), a sizable brain (enables abstract thought and fin motor control), and a larynx (allows for complex speech). Thought-processing ability led to alteration of the natural environment to suit human needs.
Robert C. Weaver
First black member of a presidential cabinet. 1964.
Panic of 1819
First major economic panic the USA faced. Was a result of over-speculation and inflation, and caused many in the west to resent the national bank and certain economic practices.
Mvemba, Nzinga
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title of Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom. (p. 639)
Mandate of Heaven
Events on earth and in heaven are directly connected. Power to rule comes form heavenly powers; this is granted to an individual who is deserving, known as the son of heaven. Ruler, a link between heaven and earth, has a duty to maintian order and dispense justice, as long as things go smoothly, he will remian in power; if he fails, the mandate of heaven will be bestowed upon a more deserving candidate. Relates to European concept of divine right. First used by Zhou to justify their takeover of the Shang.
Indian Removal Act
Passed by Andrew Jackson in 1830, the Indian Removal Act called upon natives to relocate to designated Indian Territories to the west.
Henry Clay's "American System"
A system of improvements to interstate roads (Including the expansion of the National Road from Maryland to Ohio), an increase in protective tariffs, and the rechartering of the National Bank.
The Headright System
A means of attracting new settlers to the Virginia Region of the New World. One "headright" was a tract of land of roughly 50 acres that was granted to colonists and settlers to encourage immigration. Wealthy landowners used the headright system to accumulate land by paying for the passage of indentured servants in order to receive a headright for each settler they sponsored.
"city upon a hill
This term was used by Governor John Withrop to describe the new puritan settlement in Salem, Massachusetts. He stated, we shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us." These colnists would attempt o shame England into reforming the Church of England
Know-Nothing Party
A party that arose in the north as a single issue party. They were also known as the "American Party," and were hostile to the immigrants who were arriving the northern cities in large numbers.
Three Fifths Compromise
Counted slaves as 3/5 of a person for both taxational and representational purposes.
Adams-Onis Treaty / Transcontinental Treaty
Under John Q. Adams, the USA acquired control of Florida from Spain.
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