AP. Gov't Supreme Court Cases Flashcards

Supreme Court of the United States
Terms Definitions
koremastu v US
internment camps are legal
Johnson v Zerbst
Johnson, a counterfeit money distributer, was denied right to counsel twice, by the states and the federal Does Johnson get right to counsel as described in the 6th amendment in federal court? A person charged with a crime in a federal court is entitled to counsel by the 6th am
gitlow v newyork
established precedent of federalizing bill of rights. states cannot deny freedom of speech (incorporated under 14th amendemnt)
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review; "midnight judges;" John Marshall; power of the Supreme Court.
Milliken v Bradley
Detroit school still segregated Is desegregating busing allowed for places where segregation has been implemented? Continued Brown ruling
Munn v. Illinois
(1876) Feds can regulate business crossing state lines
Mapp v. Ohio
(1962) Evidence from illegal searches can not be used
brown v board of education
overturned plessy v ferguson
Reno v. ACLU (1997)
Struck down anti-indecency provisions of the Communications Decency Act (the CDA), finding they violated the freedom of speech provisions of the First Amendment
Schenk v US
Congress can prohibit speech that causes a "plear and present danger."
Miller v. US
can't be arrested lawfully if officers break in without giving notice of their authority and purpose; SupC said arrest of a guy who was broke in on that evidence inadmissable and conviction were reversed
Reno v. ACLU
struck down CDA, protected 1st A rights on the internet; internet laws against obscenity unenforceable and unconstitutional
Palko v Connecticut
Frank Palko had been charged with first-degree murder. He was convicted instead of second-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. The state of Connecticut appealed and won a new trial; this time the court found Palko guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced him to death. Does Palko's second conviction violate the protection against double jeopardy guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment because this protection applies to the states by virtue of the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause? State must observe all fundamental liberties
Lemon v. Kurtzman
(1971) Some government aid to church schools is allowed (Lemon Test)
Plessy V Ferguson 1896
Seperate but equal facilities based upon race is constitutional
Marshall Court Decision Cases
Marbury v. Madison, Barron v. Baltimore,McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Odgen
gideon v wainright
ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them
New Jersey vs. T.L.O.
The Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches applies to schools and public school officials.
Texas v Johnson
Burning an American flag is protected free speech.
Gideon v. Wainright (1963)
Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights.
Gitlow v New York
Gitlow, a socialist, was arrested for distributing copies of a "left-wing manifesto" that called for the establishment of socialism through strikes and class action of any form. Gitlow was convicted under a state criminal anarchy law, which punished advocating the overthrow of the government by force. At his trial, Gitlow argued that since there was no resulting action flowing from the manifesto's publication, the statute penalized utterences without propensity to incitement of concrete action. The New York courts had decided that anyone who advocated the doctrine of violent revolution violated the law. Does the New York law punishing the advocacy of overthrowing the government an unconstitutional violation of the free speech clause of the First Amendment? Freedom of speech and press were among "fundamental personal rights" protected by 14th amendment. Basically applied 1st am. to states
Brown v. Board of Ed.
(1954) Overturned Plessy in public schools. School segregation unconstitutional. Segregation psychologically damaging to blacks; overturned separate but equal; use of the 14th amendment; judicial activism of Warren Court; unanimous decision
Smith v Allwright (1944)
Outlawed White primaries held by the Democratic Party, in violation of the 15th Amendment.
Establishment Clause/Free Exercise Cases
Lemon v. Kurtzman, School District of Abington Township v. Schemp, Engel v. Vitale, West Virginia v. Barnette
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
The Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government.
Gratz v bollinger
Case in which Supreme Court held that University of Michigan's undergraduate admission program was not sufficiently "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse student body.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
The right to privacy in marital relations makes the Connecticut law (which prevents married people from using contraceptives) unconstitutional.
U.C. Regents v. Bakke (1978)
Alan Bakke and UC Davis Medical School; strict quotas unconst., but states may allow race to be taken into account as ONE factor in admissions decisions. Bakke admitted.
New York Times v US
Nixon tried to censor papers from publishing pentagon papers. Did the Pentagon Papers provide irreparable danger that would allow the government to prevent its publication? "prior restraint" is unconstitutional
Barren v. Baltimore (1833)
Bill of Rights; Bill of Rights apply only to federal government; confirms "dual citizenship"
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
A Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutiuonal law, the interment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in ecnampments during World War II.
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)
The Supreme Court held that the First and Fourteenth Amendments protected speech advocating violence at a Ku Klux Klan rally because the speech did not call for "imminent lawless action."
Furman vs. Georgia *
Limited the use of the death penalty based on the 8th Amendment.
New York Times Co. v US
"National security" does not always allow for prohibiting the press UNLESS the publication would cause and inevitable, direct, and immediate event imperiling the safety of American forces.
Garcia v San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority
Tired to get minimum wage standards for transit workers Does Congress have authority to enforce Fair Labor Act because it is under commerce clause? Because of the commerce clause cant impose minimum wage standards on states
School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp (1963)
A Supreme Court decision holding that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954 and 1955)
Unanimous decision declaring "separate but equal" unconstitutional.
west virginia state board of education v barnette
school boards may not force students to salute the flag
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