AP. Us History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Siddharta Gautama
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Worcester V. Gerorgia
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Montesquieu
Enlightenment philosopher who theorized serperation of powers in a three branch government with executive, legislative and judicial branches
aristocracy
hereditary nobility; privileged class; government by nobility; N. aristocrat
industrialis communist nation
second world nation
Constitution
the act of forming something
Natufian society
located in Eastern Medditeranean
cultivated wheat and herded animals 
Creel Commission
creel and propaganda. public information
Guomindang
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement. (p. 769)
durbar
An elaborate display of political power and wealth in British India in the nineteenth century, ostensibly in imitation of the pageantry of the Mughal Empire. (p. 661)
Specie
precious metal; many felt that currency was worthless unless this backed it
Satyagraha
term meaning "truth force". peaceful protest, boycott
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations. (p. 833)
Quraysh
Tribe of bedouins that controlled Mecca. (p. 281)
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
an enemy of Huerta
integration
the correlation of structural or behavioral characteristics in two or more interacting organisms in a community or organs in an organism resulting from progressive accommodation by natural selection.
Mero?
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E. In this period Nubian culture shows more independence from Egypt and the influence of sub-Saharan Africa. (p. 71)
Mestizo
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent.
Atahualpa
last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. Executed by the Spanish.
Sussex Pledge
Agreement in which Germany ceases submarine warfare if British stop mining North Sea
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Hippies
a youth subculture (mostly from the middle class) originating in San Francisco in the 1960s
Hierarchy
The classification of people based on economic, social, or professional standing.
Max Planck
(1858-1957) built on the discoveries of the Curie's, he said that energy is emitted in uneven little spurts which he called "Quanta" and not in even streams. His discovery called into question the old sharp theory, that matter was different then energy. The old view that atoms were the stable, building blocks of nature was badly shaken because of Planck.
czar
the Russian word for emperor or Caesar
Clarence Darrow
famed criminal lawyer; worked in "Monkey Trial"; made William Jennings Bryan appear foolish
Authoritarian
Describing a system of rule that requires citizens to obey those in power (as opposed to one that favors individual freedom)
Crusaders
European warriors that tried to take the Holy Land away from Muslim control
genghis kahn
1162-1227. Leader and founder of Mongol tribes of Asia. Ruled from 1206-1227. Occupied most of Asia during reign.
Neolithic revolution
the development of agriculture & domestication of animals as a food source. this led to the development of permanent settlements & the start of Civilization
Billy Sunday
Famous baseball player during the 1880s who became the most celebrated and influential American evangelist during the first two decades of the 20th century
Nathaniel Hawthorne
19th century American novelist and short story writer. He is seen as a key figure in the development of American literature for his tales of the nation's colonial history
Andrew Johnson
17th president after the assassination of lincoln, president during reconstruction
Khitan nomads
founded Liao dynasty of manchurai in 907;remained a threat to song; very much influenced by chinese culture
Thaddeus Stevens
(AJohn) , Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
spoil system
The practice of giving a pointed positions in government to people loyal to the party and power
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
filial
noting or having the relation of a child to a parent.
King George III
King of England during American Revolutionary era. Many were loyal to him but not to parliament. Parliament and his ministers were somewhat running the show. Was not able to realize that America was a growing nation and was not ready to let them go. Needed to control them and only looked to them for $$.
Great Migration
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Taiping
rebellion Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry
Moroccan Crisis
British and French make deal, French accept Brit. rule in Egypt, Brit. support French to dominate Morrocco. Germany don't like alliance, don't accept, call international conference, Algeciras Conference of 1906, brings Brit+French closer together, Germany gets nothing except no friends except for Austria/Hungary. Anglo-French Entente of 1904 settled all colonial issues
Nullification Crisis of 1832
conflict between abolitionists and slave-owning southerners; Gag Resolution-anti-slavery appeals to be delayed without debate; abolitionist material to be destroyed in South due to riots and mobbing.
trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
Trading network linking North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara. (p. 210)
Abraham Lincoln
nicknamed "Old Abe" and "Honest Abe"; born in Kentucky to impoverished parents and mainly self-educated; a Springfield lawyer. Republicans chose him to run against Senator Douglas (a Democrat) in the senatorial elections of 1858. Although he loss victory to senatorship that year, Lincoln came to be one of the most prominent northern politicians and emerged as a Republican nominee for president. Although he won the presidential elections of 1860, he was a minority and sectional president (he was not allowed on the ballot in ten southern states).
Savannah Indians
tribe who had helped English settlers in Carolinas with Indian slave trade, but were later annihilated by the colonists when they tried to leave
james oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
Brinkmanship
a term coined in respect to the foreign policy approach of secretary of state John Foster Dulles, and used since to describe a gambler's attitude in the management of foreign relations. He said that one must be prepared to go to the 'brink" presumably atomic war, if a nation were to be taken seriously in international affairs.
alfred mahan
The influence of sea power upon history. strong Navy= countries ability to secure foreign markets
Ferdinand and Isabella
The royalty that sponsored Columbus' explorations
13th Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery
metallurgical
the technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
sargon of akkad
A conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who took over all of Mesopotamia and created the world's first empire.
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order."
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)
Clean Air Act
(RN), 1970 reaction to Rachel Carson in her 1962 in Silent Spring, It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that American was moving towards certain environmentalist measures.
Code of Hammurabi
The collection of laws organized by Hammurabi for the people of Babylon to follow
"Peace with honor"
Slogan used by Nixon in election; promised honorable end to Vietnam War.
1st Seminole War
Andrew Jackson got permission to go into FL and he arrests and hangs British officials Ambrister and Arbuthnot; saved by John Quincy Adams
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Massive Retaliation & Brinkmanship
the practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labour relations, and (in contemporary settings) military strategy involving the threatened use of nuclear weapons.
the pullman strike
1894 railway workers strike for higher wages In Debs thrown in jail after being sued. President Grover Cleveland issued a court order to stop the strike, strike achieved nothing.
 
 
 
 
218. Constitution: Senate
 
 
 
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
Treaty of Paris
1783 – This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
- Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands, and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceding Florida to the British.
Fugitive Slave Act
runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters
1199. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
March on Washington
almost 250,000 showed up to here Dr. King talk. Where told "I have a dream" speech. Largest civil rights demonstration, and is considered the culmination of civil rights movement.
Harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials
Battle of New Orleans
battle in 1815 between american and british troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an american victory
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
1035. Department of Labor
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor
1242. Social Security Act
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
Alger Hiss, Rosenberng Case
Examples of the US trying to catch communist spies, regardless of privacy issues
Kansas- Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
1041. "Dollar Diplomacy"
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
727. Election of 1888: candidates, issues
Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.
Article X of the league Covenant
Addendum to the Treaty of Versailles that empowered the League of Nations to undertake military actions against aggressor nations
The American Society for the promotion of Temperance
1826, this group emerged to use techniques of revivalism to preach abstinence because, alcoholism was growing rapidly.
Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
demanded complete equality for African Americans
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
A document drafted in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly. This declaration uphled that all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights" of "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression." It called for equality of law, education, employment, innocent until proven guilty, and freedom of religion.
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