abnormal 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Poor living
Treating BDD
CBT, challenging cognitions
An association, or correlation, between two variables, that can range in value from +1 to -1.
obtaining sexual gratification through exposure to often unwilling victims
Single beginning to multiple pathway
Animal phobia
Unreasonable, enduring fear of animals or insects that usually develops early in life.
The treatment of abnormal behavior through psychological techniques.
nontender swelling of testes; caused by accumulating fluid
Substance intoxication
significant maladaptive behavior and psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS
Outline research studies related to biological factors and abnormality (6 marks)
Treating DID
intergrating alters into one personality and working through traumas
Individuals inherit certain traits or behaviors which may then be actiated within certain conditions of stress (genes!)
somatization disorder
A long-lasting preoccupation with body symptoms that have no identifiable physical cause; rare
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Enduring, distressing emotional disorder that follows exposure to a severe helpless- or fear-inducing threat. The victim re-experiences the trauma, avoids stimuli associated with it, and develops a numbing of responsiveness and an increased vigilance and arousal.
Galen (130-200)
Developed a system of medical knowledge using anatomy to discover answers to questions about the working of body and mind and maintained Hippocrates' beliefs that abnormality was result of an imbalance of bodily substances
Genetic Mapping
The attempt by biological researchers to identify the structure of a gene and the characteristics it controls.
series of normal respirations followed by a period of apnea

seen with head trauma, brain abscess, heat stroke, spinal meningitis, & encephalitis
Biot's respiration
123 american undergraduates. volunteers to take place in a 'vision' test. All but one were confederates. look at line lengths-asked to state in turn which line looked like the standard line. confederates were instructed to give the incorrect answer 12 of
why did people conform
Outline how the effectiveness of drugs has been tested (4 marks)
faking a disorder to achieve some goal, such as an insurance settlement
psychological autopsy
where an psychological profile of the person who commited suicide is reconstructed by interviews with the friends and family members that knew what the individual was thinking and doing before his death
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
Single-subject design
Multiple baseline approach
An experimental procedure in which one person at a time is studied in both the experimental and control conditions
Adoption Study
A method of comparing genetic versus environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children whose biological parents have diagnosed psychological disorders but whose rearing parents do not.
Forward protrusion of the sternum with ribs sloping back at either side & vertical depressions; requires no treatment. surgery if severe.
Pectus carinatum
moral considerations
moral dilemma - costs a person integrity.
Outline the use of ECT to treat abnormality (6 marks)
Depersonalization disorder
frequent episodes in which the person feels detached from their body, no new identities and no amnesia
a somatoform disorder in which there are complaints of physical problems or impairments of sensory or motor functions controlled by the voluntary nervous system, all suggesting a neurological disorder but with no underlying cause
conversion disorder
Scientist practitioner
Do research and clinical work- allow both to inform e/o
Research on physical health outcome of trama survivors- smoking, drinking etc. (if you know the area well your going to look for those types of behaviors---- and do research projects to get more in
seasonal affective disorder
depressive mood during the winter and manic during the summer
The drilling of a hole in the skill, presumably as a way of treating psychological disorders during prehistoric times
mothers of many people with schizophrenia had contracted a particular strain of influenza during pregnancy. may enter childs unborn brain.
gottesman and shields (1976)
Asians and alcohol
50% of people in Asia don’t produce the enzyme needed to break down first product of alcohol, acetaldehyde
Trauma causes
withdrawal from sex occurs in men who buy into rape culture myths
the loss of memory for only selected types of information, such as all members of one's family
systematized amnesia
exposure and ritual prevention (ERP)
most effective approach for treating OCD
when real participant was given the support of either ral participant or confederate - dropped to 5.5%
perrin and spencer (1980)
Diagnosing conversion disorder
must be no medical cause, looks at actual functioning of the body (ex: glove anesthesia and nerves)
Panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA)
Fear and avoidance of situations the person believes might induce a dreaded panic attack.
2 confederates, 4 participants, female. 36 blue slides.
condition 1 - confederates always say hreen. 8.42% of participants agree
varies as time changes- whats socially acceptable now may not have been 50 years ago. e.g homosexuality
context-person walking next to nothing on a beach would be regarded as normal whereas the same outfit in the classroom or formal event would be regarded as abnormal.
validity - realism - Orne and Holland (1968)
feel that participants hve learnt to distrust experimenters. - to suppose the victim cannot really be suffereing any real harm. however milgram had interviewed the participants -they had believe they were giving real shocks.
korsakoff's psychosis
relapse prevention programs
Developed psychoanalysis
Freud, S.
a naming system
-therapy that induces disorder
"peeping tom"6+ months, urges/fantasies act of observing unsuspecting person who is naked, disrobing, engaging in sexual activity, usually masturbating while watching
Schizoaffective d/o
Schizophrenia+Mood sxs>6 months
a person suffering from hypochondriasis has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause
Most Common in Community
Avoidant PD, comorbidity
Dysthemic disorder
major depression
severe anxiety
chemical substances that transmit messages from one neuron to another
Birth Complications:
-Delivery/pregnancy (availability of oxygen)
-Prenatal viral exposure: 2nd trimester
-Breech birth
-Lack of oxygen may lead to schizophrenia
antianxiety drugs
taken up quickly int eh digestive tract
patients become psychologically and physiologically dependent on them.  withdrawal likely.
relapse rates are high.
believed to work by enhancing the activity of GABA receptors
operates according to reality principle; processes information by secondary processes (logic, reason-based thinking skills)
Patient's attempts to avoid insight
the american psychiatric association diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
147) Which personality disorder is marked by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of, which leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation?
catatonic schizophrenia
motionless, frenzied, and holding contorted postures
Hallucinations and delusions are the most common negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
-rigdly held beliefs that are inaccurate or inconsistent with how people experience reality
-5 types - persecutory, referential, grandiose, somatic relgious 
-can be bizzare or non bizzare
-The future oriented mood state
-An apprehension about future dangers or misfortunes 
-somatic symptoms of tension 
Comorbidity rate between ADHD & ODD
Treatment approaches
Individual, group family, self-help groups, couples therapy
Antidepressant drugs require at least 3 to 4 weeks to take effect.
According to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses
Cluster A: Odd-Eccentric
-Distrust, suspiciousness, social detachment
-Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
Personality Disorders Cluster B
Histrionic: self dramatization; over concern with attractiveness
Types of antidepressants that treat Panic Disorders
longer lasting, more persistent period of emotionality
Two types of BN
1. Purging: Vomiting/diuretics/laxatives/enemas2. Non-Purging: Fasting/excessive exercise
Most common Psychiatric disorders are...
anxiety disorders
Borderline Personality Disorder: Treatment
Treatment- Medications (antidepressants)- Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Assessment Studies
studies aimed at gathering information to describe a particular group in which variables are not manipulated. Such data can be used for prediction and are usually expressed in the form of correlations between variables
Research using the dismantling strategy suggests that the benefits of systematic desensitization are due to:
a. counterconditioning
b. extinction
c. fading
d. trace conditioning
b. extinction
a progressively degenerative and irreversible physical and mental disorder
general paresis
____________ help control the positive symptoms of many schizophrenics, but have no effect on negative symptoms
dopamine antagonists
Moira is schizophrenic. She giggles a lot, acts silly, and talks "baby talk." She experiences frequent auditory hallucinations and bizarre delusions. Moira most likely belongs to the ________ subtype of schizophrenia.
anxiety disorder
-a class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or maladaptive anxiety reactions
-maladaptive reaction that can cause significant emotional distress or impair thr person's ability to function
Positive Symptoms
present when they shoudld not be
Avoidant personality disorder is extremely similar to and hard to distinguish from
generalized social phobia.
the phenomenon that people may alter their behavior, either intentionally or unintentionally, when they know that they are being observed
Hallucinations in schizo
a positive symptom; sensory experiences that aren't caused by actual external stimuli; most often auditory- they hear voices that can be comforting or pleasing to the patient
Latent Content
repressed conflictual material in a disguised form
culture-bound syndromes
patterns of abnormal behavior found within only one or a few cultures
4 Types of Emotional Disorders
Reactive Attachment Disorders
Separation Anxiety
Childhood Depression
Process in which a test is administered to large group of people, whose performance then serves as a common standard or norm against which any individuals score can be measured
Person who did alot with introversion and extroversion
refers to several types of severe mental disorder in which the person in considered to be out of contact with reality.
unipolar depression
depression without a history of mania
Lifetime risk among pts w/ reccurent depressive episodes
sexual dysfunction (social/cultural)
-erotophobia: scared of anything sexual -personal trauma
Tension Headaches
-occurs w/ muscle tension and alterations in blood flow (inflammation)-Tx: medication-Tylenol, Aspirin, Ibuprofen
Symbolization and dreams
Direct, but symbolics (Manifest Content)
Cognitive Behavioral
-Roots in learning principles and cognitive science-Behavior is reinforced by consequences (attention, escape, sensory stimulation, access to desirable objects or events)
Paraphilic Disorders
Group of disorders involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in nature
the study of the distribution of diseased, disorders or health related behaviors in a given population.
Social Roles
the function a particular person plays in society, which is determined by the particular role he or she fills. Most people have oberlapping social roles
Culture-bound syndromes
Patterns of erratic or unusual thinking and behavior that have been identified in diverse societies around the world and do not fit easily into the other diagnositc categories that are listed in the main body of the DSM-IV-TR
22) In an experiment involving a specific form of therapy, the independent variable is the
therapy type.
Dissociative Disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories thoughts and feelings
Endocrine system:
network of glands located throughout the body
Somatoform Disorder
disorders that occur when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom; a person experiences a physical problem in absence of any physical cause; two of these disorders are hypochondriasis, conversion disorder and body dysmorphic disorder
Families of people with anorexia
exhibit tendencies towards perfectionism.
PTSD two factor theroy
-step one is classical conditioning
step two is operant condition
Schizophreniform Disorder Length
1 month less than 6 months
actuarial interpretation
when a clinician analyzes the results of a specific test on the basis of an explicit set of rules that are derived from empirical research
factitious disorder
motivated primarly by a desire to assume the sick role rather than by a desire for external gain; pretend to be ill or make themselves appear to be ill. ex: taking drugs that produce a rapid heart rate
Transvestism vs. Transexualism
Transvestites do not identify with women, they just like wearing their clothes.No deep abiding sense of identity with women
Childhood disintegrative disorder
apparently normal development for the first 2 years, followed by significant loss of previously acquired skills between 2-10
abnormalities of functioning in social interaction, communication, activities
Hinckley and Reagan

1982: John Hinckley attempts to assassinate president Reagan and is found Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI)

o   Congress held hearings
o   Dropped irresistible impulse-the volitional prong (he would have done that no matter if he would get caught)
§  Now not part of the Federal definition (part of some states def. but not NC)
o   Put Burden of proof on defense.
o   Where things stand in terms of federal definition.
Rational Emotive Therapy
Cognitive Theory developed by Ellis which helps clients to identify and change their irrational assumptions and thinking that cause their psychological disorder
Emil Kraepelin
Major figure in the history of schizophrenia. (1899) Gave an enduring description and categorization of schizophrenia. He defined Dementia Praecox and the difference between it and manic depressive illness
Who has Anxiety Disorders more, Men or Women?
Comorbidity with anxiety disorders?
-high comorbidity among anxiety disorder
-high rates of comorbidity with depression
-both are characterized by high levels of neg. emotion, but depression is also characterized by low positive emotion whereas anxiety is not.
CBT treatment for BN includes
Cognitive: challenge dysfunctional thoughts
-foods are not all good or bad
-ingesting a "bad" food is not a failure
Behavioral: focus on normalizing eating patterns, meal planning, nutrional education, practice eating smaller amounts more regularly
Sexual aversion D/O
little interest extreme fearpanic and disgustmore women then men **desire
3 Types of Hallucinations
1. Audible Thoughts2. Voicing commenting on your T, F, B, etc.3. Voices arguing
Panic Attack
abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by several physical symptoms, such as dizziness or heart palpitations
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Defense Mechanism
Strategies the ego uses to disguise or transform unconscious wishes.
Criterion-related Validity
Depends upon relating test scores to performance on some relevant criterion or set of criteria
Symtpoms of memory impairment, faulty judgment, and impaired concentration sould most likely result from lesions to the:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporaal lobe
c. temporal lobe
Neurotic Disorder
a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
-rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternative personalities, including tone of voice and mannerisms
-the original personality is typically unaware of the existence of the others
-formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder
obsession (as part of OCD)
-nagging, persistent thoughts that create anxiety and seem beyond the person's ability to control
WHo has the highest prev rates for substance abuse nad dependence
Young Aduluts
Feature three?
If mood symptoms ar present, they are brief compared to the delusional symptoms.
Dissociative amnesia
partial or complete loss of recall for particular events or for a period of time. a sudden inability to recall extensive an impt personal info that exceeds normal forgetfulness.
Externalizing Disorders
Disorder of childhood. Acting out on his/her environment.UNDERCONTROLLEDADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder
Mild Retardation

IQ of 50-55 to 70

Most people who have mental retardation
Self-care by late childhood, can speak fluently, hold job, marry, have children, live independently with some help
A person with two or more well-developed identities has the disorder called
dissociative identity disorder
biofeedback training (BFT)
helps people gain control over various bodily functions, such as muscle tension and brain waves, by giving them information about these functions in the form of auditory signals or visual displays
A belief that is firmly held in spite of evidence to the contrary
Comorbidity of Substance Abuse
~50% w/SUD have mental disorder
~50% w/mental disorder have SUD
most likely to have SUD (30%) if you have Antisocial PD
Manic "Episode"
-Period of at least 1 week
-Three or more of the following:
-Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
-Des need for sleep
-Excessively talkative or pressured speech
-Flight of ideas or racing thoughts
-Inc goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation
-Excessive involvement in pleasure activities w/ high potential for painful consequences (sex, spending sprees)
Marijuana and the Brain
1. Hippocampus2. Increased blood flow to ACC, Amygdala 3. Decreased flow to Temporal lobe
______ is to unipolar depression as _______ is to bipolar depression
Dysthymia; cyclothymic disorder
Psychoanalytic Approach -
Based on the writings of Sigmund Freud, the psychoanalytic approach is a paradigm for conceptualizing abnormal behavior proposing that mental disorders arise from conflicts between unconscious and conscious mental processes. This is also a therapy technique wherein such techniques as dream interpretation, free association, and analysis of transference are used to gain insight into the unconscious and to make the unconscious conscious.
Content Validity
the extent to which the test elicits a range of responses over the range of skills, understanding, or behavior the test measures
70) Body dysmorphic disorder in adolescence
leads to higher suicide rates.
Children with Bipolar Disorder are more likely than are those with ADHD to experience the following:
Elated Mood
Flight of ideas/racing thoughts
Decreased need for sleep
Parasuicidal Behavior Percenet in BPD and population
69-75 BPD
4 population
14 college students
Other forms of compensatory behavior besides purging
Laxatives, diuretics, enemas, extreme exercise, or rigid fasting
What is thought stopping?
a therapeutic technique in which an individual learns to stop anxiety-provoking thoughts. During therapy, a client alerts the therapist when the anxiety provoking thought is present and the therapist then yells "stop!" Outside therapy, the client mentally verbalizes a similar shout each time the anxiety provoking thought comes to mind.
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Presence of something that is normally absent. These include delusions and hallucinations.
Definition of Personality Disorder
a pattern of behavior or experience that is
enduring, inflexible, and pervasive
which deviates from cultural expectations
AND causes distress or impairment
major depression or unipolar depression
-the most common mood disorder
-must be depressed for 2 weeks straight
-loss of appetite, interest, weight
-fatigue, change in sleeping patterns
Freud's 2 major drives+their purpose
1. Eros (Life/Sex drive): Survival, reproduction, pleasure Energy comes from Eros=libido 2. Thanatos (Death drive): Goal of all life is death May result in aggression
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
prevent reuptake of serotonin in the synapse
Cultural Relativity Theory -
A theory stating that human behavior lies on a continuum and that it is the role of culture to limit the spectrum by defining acceptable forms of behavior.
Among African-Americans, Schizophrenia
a. has lower remission rates
b. is often suggested by the presence of hallucinations and delusions
c. most often involves predominant motor symptoms
d. has a later age of onset
b. is often suggested by the presence of hallucinations and delusions - AA have a higher rate of Schizophrenia than the general population. may be due to a mis diagnosis of hallucinations and delusions that are actually smptoms of another disorder
What type of approach does the DSM IV TR use?
multi-axial approach
PTSD : Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)
combination of coping and anxiety manegement skills (relaxation, though stopping role playing and guided self dialogue)
Criteria A for schizo
2 or more of following symptoms that last for a significant period of time during a 1 month period: delusions, hallucinations, disorg speech, grossly disorg or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms (such as affective flattening, alogia, or avolition)
Incessant restlessness, extremely poor attention span, impulsive an disorganized behavior. Behavior observable in most areas of functioning: school, home, etc. being disorganized is one way to tell apart kids who are simply defiant from those who have ADHD.

Hyperactivity and restlessness: nearly constant fidgeting and squirming, difficulty staying seated, running around (as if driven by a motor), climbing excessively, difficulty engaging in quiet activities, talks excessively

Inattention: neglects details, doesn’t listen when others are speaking, doesn’t finish tasks, difficulty organizing behavior, loses things frequently, distracted, forgetful

Impulsivity: blurts out while others are talking, difficulty waiting for things, often interrupts or intrudes on others

What is dissociative amnesia?
a form of amnesia in which an individual is unable to remember important personal details and experiences usually associated with traumatic or very stressful event. This amnesia is not due to drugs or any type of brain dysfunction associated with brain damage.
Amount of serotonergic functioning
Low in some brain areas, high in others
Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa (goals (2), barriers (5), family therapy (4))
Goals- Restore normal weight- Keep weight onBarriers- Low incidence- Lack of consensus on best treatment - Variability in age of onset- High cost- Complex interaction of medical/psychological Behavioral family systems therapy for anorexia- Assessment; need for hospitalization- Control Rationale; parents are responsible for child's heating habits- Weight Gain; parent continues control of eating- Weight Maintenance; control of eating is shifted to adolescent
In the WISC, ____ and _____ subtests are the most direct measures of perceptual and motor skills.
block design; object assembly
116) Negative symptoms of schizophrenia refer to the
symptoms that do not exist in those with schizophrenia that do with unaffected people.
ASD and PTSD are different from most disorders because...
etiology is in the DSM
What does longitudinal research about attachment styles suggest?
an insecure attachment doesnt seem to result in the development of any particular disorder. rather, insecure attachments predict a number of internalzing and social difficulties, including lower self esteem, les competence for peer interaction, and increased dependency on others
People with body dysmorphic disorder are similar to people with hypochondriasis in that
both ask for reassurance about their symptoms but don't feel relief when they get it.
client centered therapy assumes that:
## the client takes the lead during therapy# the client takes responsibility for their own actions
Manic Episode
- Distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week- Must have 3(4 if mood is only irritable) or more:Grandiosity, Decreased need for sleep, Increased talking, Flight of ideas, Distractibility, Goal-directed activity(money and time)Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities like substance abuse

148) In order for antisocial personality disorder to be diagnosed, the patient must be at least
18 years old with symptoms of conduct disorder before age 15.
How does treatment course of bulimia compare to treatment course of anorexia?
Outcome for bulimia is generally more positive than for anorexia
What occurs in the residual phase of schizophrenia?
There are continuing indications of disturbances similar to the behaviors of the prodromal phase. Due to the disturbances, people with schizophrenia experience serious problems in work, relationships, and self care during this phase.
Dream work: Define Operates via
Disguised latent contentPrimary-Process thought Often Chaotic
Familial" does not mean the same thing as "genetic" because
families share both genes and the environment.
There are many theories on the causes of panic disorder and agoraphobia. What is one of the theories on panic disorder concering biological factors?
One set of biological theories focuses on abnormalities in the levels of particular neurotransmitters. This theory suggests that people with panic disorder have an excess of norepinephrine in the brain. This neurotransmitter is activated when an individual is placed under stress or in a dangerous situation. When people with a history of panic attacks are given drugs that increase norepinephrine activity, they are more likely to have a panic attack than those who don't have the panic disorder.
An elderly person with deficits in episodic memory will have trouble:
a. remembering a future doctor's appointment
b. making a cake using a complicated recipe
c. remembering which key opens the front door
d. recalling where he took his wife for their 50th
d. recalling where he took his wife for the 50th anniversary - episodic memory
John and Ira eat dinner together after work. Several hours later, each starts to feel nausea and stomach pains. John is a hypochondriac, Ira is not. Most likely:
John will think that he has stomach cancer and Ira will think the food he ate made him sick.
Disorganized Speech *AKA *2 parts
*Formal thought d/o*Incoherence: Inability to organize ideas*Derailment (loose assoc): Rambles, hard time sticking to one subject
What are the 5 axises of the DSM-IV
1. Any of the disorders -Mood, childhood, anxiety2. Personality disorders and Mental Retardation3.Medical History -Physical problems that may lead to an issue4. Social-Environmental Stressors - Death, Divorce, debt5. Global assessment of function
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