Abnormal 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
disulfiram
completed rape
13
aversive classical conditioning
Anticonvulsants
-mood stabilizers
-examples: Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol, Topamax, Gabapentin
Psychoanalytic view
Freud, 1900’s
Neuroticism
expression of negative emotions
Anxiety
*future-oriented, reponse to perception of anticipated threat
Schizoid
Personality disorder-cluster ADetached or flattened affectIndifferent to criticism or praiseSex not importantTasks done alone (work and hobbies)Absence of friends but don't careNeither desire nor enjoy relationshipsTake pleasure in few if any activities4 of 7mostly males6 months or longer
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
unrealistically self-important; manipulative; lacking empathy; expects special treatment; can't take criticism (more common in males)
Categorical Classification
-
-low inter-rater reliablilty
-very high comorbidity
-high overlap among symptom criteria
-not based on a theoretical model
-ambiguity occurs regarding the presence vs. absence of Pds
-most commonly diagnosed PD is PD-NOS
dementia praecox
splitting of mental associations
 
Endogenous Depression
 
v.
 
Exogenous Depression
Endogenous
Genetic component; responds better to antidepressant; chemical component; more body symptoms
 
Exogenous
More psychological; Responds better to psychotherapy
Sexual Aversion Disorder
persistent/recurrent aversion to/avoidance of all/almost all genital contact with sexual partner
Barbiturates
barbiturates-act as depressants to slow down the action of the central nervous system.
causes relaxations makes people sleepy, dangerous in large quantities.
leads to increased tolerance and physiological and psychological dependence.
HOwever, tolerance does not increase amount needed to cause death
glutamate
an excitatory neurotransmitter that "turns on" many different neurons, which leads to action
Freud's anxiety
Aversive, inner motivational stateWarning sign to the ego
Splitting
IN object relations theory, phenomenon wherein a person fails to resolve stage 2 or 3 of the self-concept acquistion process and splits conceptions of self and others into either all good or all bad categories, neglecting to recognize people's mixed qualities.
75) Cognitive-behavioral therapy approaches the treatment of dissociative disorders by assuming that
misinterpret their symptoms.
Schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by:
-disorganized and delusional thinking
-disturbed perceptions
-inappropriate emotions and actions
The practices of washing, counting, and hoarding to suppress obsessions and provide relief are called __________. 
Compulsions
Psychological Dependence
-take pscyhoactive substance to allieviate negative moods and avoiding withdrawal
for public speaking ro writing
OCPD characteristics
-preoccupied with rules, lists, detailes
-neglects faimly and firends because of devotion to work
-is overconsientious about rules ethics and values
-cannot discard worthless objects
-hoards money in case of disaster
-refuses to delegate tasks to others
 
Bulimia Features
-self esteem weight, diet, apperance
-sensitive to others comments
-depression
-anxiety disorders
-BPD
-substance abuse
men response to treatment in schizophrenia
worse
 
 
 
 
Narcissistic Personality Disorder

A grandiose sense of self-importance, often masking feelings of inferiority (brags but requires constant reassurance)
Fantasies of unlimited power, success, love, admiration
Enraged by criticism
Demanding in relationships (splitting-view people as good or bad)
Hardly ever go to therapy-don’t want to acknowledge anything is wrong
Adolph Hitler?
Naomi Campbell?
CONNECTED TO MANIC SYMPTOMS ON AXIS 1
 
rumination disorder
repeated regurgitation and rechewing of food, primarily found in infants
Experimental Group
participants exposed to the independent variable
Reactivity
intensity, duration, and experience of negative affect
what is GAS?
-general adaptation syndrome
-name given by Hans Selye to the pattern of response of the body to persistent or enduring stress, the alarm reaction, resistance stage, and exhaustion stage
Schizotypal PD
-Social and interpersonal deficits marked by:
-acute discomfort with and reduced capacity for close relationships
-cognitive and perceptual distortions and behavioral eccentricities
-Odd beliefs or magical thinking
-Unusual peceptual experiences
-Odd thinking or speech
-Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
-Inappropriate or constricted affect
-Bheavior or appearance is odd,eccentric or peculiar
-Lacks close friends or confidants
-Excessive social anxiety that does not dimish w/ familiarity
Personality Disorder Cluster B
Borderline
Borderline: Impulsiveness; inappropiate anger; drastic mood shifts
(more women have this than men)
Compulsions
either overt behaviors or covert mental rituals designed to:
-neutralize obsessions
-prevent an undesirable event/outcome
-time consuming (>1hr daily) and interferes with functioning
 
equinifinality
must consider various paths of outcomes before coming to one result
Culture and EDO
Thin idealN. Americans>BlackIncreasing amongst Blacks and Hispanics
Bipolar I
Symptoms of mania: disconnected thoughts, high risk behaviors
OCD
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions
Self-actualization
aka self-fulfilment; process by which the development of one's potentials and abilities is achieved
duty to warn
mental health professional's responsibility to break confidentiality and notify the potential victim whom a client has specifically threatened
DSM-IV-TR places primary emphasis on ____ of certain syndromes.
consequences
What type of hallucinations are the most common?
auditory
Protective Factors
Influences that modify a persons response to environmental stressors, making it less likely that the person will experience the adverse consequences of the stressors.
People with PPD are unlikely to seek
treatment
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety disorder characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic and continuous worry that is distressing and unproductive, accompanied by physical symptoms of tenseness, irritability and restlesness.
 
 
 
 
Instrumental Aggression
aggression is goal oriented (as opposed to reactive aggression, which is a hostile response to a perceived provocation)
fear
emotional rxn to real and immediate danger; children have problems identifying their anxiety (future), bu they are more aware of their fears; dif fears develop at dif ages
Longitudinal Studies
researchers observe the same subjects on many occasions over a long period of time.
synapse
the junction between one neuron and another through which nerve impulses pass
It is likely that major depressive disorder is due to a single gene.
False
Biophsychosocial Therapy
Explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, etc. influences
The study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder in a population
Epidemiology
Cognitive behavior therapist known for rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Ellis, A.
Cathartic Method
Reliving past trauma to release emotional tension
Dysthymic Disorder
-Less severe, more chronic unipolar depressive disorder
-Depressed mood most of the day, more days than not for 2 years or more (1yr for child/adol)
mental status exam
involves systematic observation of somebody's behavior when interacts with any one person
Bipolar II
Hypomanic episode with full blown history of depression-age of onset ~22 yrs-many start as this then digress to I
Latency (Brief overview)
Relatively calm, focus on intellectual/social growth
Gene Expression
Proteins influence whether the action of a specific gene will occur.
Premature Ejaculation
- Ejaculation occurs too quickly- Perception of lack of control over orgasm is the chief complaint- Most common sexual dysfunction among men
Castration Anxiety
Boys'fear that their fathers will retaliate against them by castrating them; this fear serves as motivation for them to put aside their desires for their mothers and to aspire to become like their fathers.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to training
Social Work
concerned with helping people to achieve an effective level of psychosocial functioning
50) As a pharmacological approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) correct serotonin imbalances by
blocking reuptake.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
Inappropriate Emotions & Actions
-some schizophrenics experience flat affect (emotionless state of zombie-like apathy)
-others demonstrate strong emotions at inappropriate times, sometimes in reaction to their hallucinations (laughter, yelling at someone who isn't there)
Hallucinations are
sensory experiences with no basis in reality.
Self Report Data
Surveys, questionnaires, etc. Can be misleading b.c people can lie
Etiology of Schizophrenia Before Birth
-genes, maternal malnourishment, maternal illness or stress
Cohort effect
A group that shares some common feature, particularly time of birth
How is pain disorder treated?
cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
Sensate focus
Sex therapy; couple spends time in quiet, relaxed setting, leaning to touch each other
 
 
 
theories of autism
 
(6)
Deficits of theory of mind
genetic predisposition
chromosomal abnormalities - chromosome 15, sex chromosomes
neurological deficits
prenatal and birth complications
neurotransmitter imbalances
 
 
Symptoms of Borderline Personality
Balanced among gender
unstable in mood, behavior and self-image
 
prone to substance abuse and unsafe sex, intense unstable realtionships
 
high suicide rate
Self-Theory
The theory that emphasizes the role of the self
Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia:
-Deficits (what "don't have")
-Flat affect (may be inappropriate; anhedonia - lack of pleasure/interest
-Alogia - poverty of speech
-Avolitional (lack of will/interest; withdrawn, not goal directed)
-Course = worse
-Premorbid functioning = worse
-Males > females
-Less responsive to medications
Casual factors of Antisocial PD
-Moderate heritability
-Low trait anxiety and poor conditioning of fear
-ODD(oppositional defiant disorder) during childhood
-CD (conduct disorder) during adolescence
-Parental antisocial behavior
-Divorce, poverty, poor education
-Poor parenting skills, poor monitoring, ineffective discipline, coercive interactions
-Association with deviant and aggressive peers
 
Mesolimbic Dopamine System
center of psychoactive drug activation in the brain. involved in the release of dopamine and in mediating the rewarding properties of drugs.
Located in the center of the brain, the ventral tegmental area, controls emotions, memory, and gratification. activation of this area stimulates gratification, interupting normal functions
 


Drugs of abuse produce acute increases in dopamine in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) which projects to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and on to the prefrontal cortex (PFC)
Efficacy of antidepressant treatment for BN
Some improvement with:
 
-negative mood
-preoccupation with body shape and weight
-decreased frequency of binges
castration anxiety
strong fear that young boy who's lusting over his mother and jealous of his dad, will be punished by dad in way castration
Impulsive, self-destructive behaviors common in people w/Borderline PD
1. Substance Abuse2. Reckless Behavior3. SI4. Suicide*May end up in the hospital or dead due to suicide attempts that are actually successful
Specfic Phobia
(definition)
unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation that markedly interferes with daily life functioning.
 
 
Diathesis-Stress Model -
A theory that stipulates that behavior is a result of both genetic and biological factors ("nature"), and life experiences ("nurture"). According to this model, mental disorders are produced by the interaction of some vulnerability characteristic, or predisposition, and a precipitating event in the environment.
Twin Study
Studies of the heritability of a disorder by comparing concordance rates between monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
Ego
the part of the personality that must deal with the realities of the world as it attempts to fulfill the id impulses as well as perform other functions
expert witness
person who because of special training and experience is allowed to offer opinion testimony in legal trials
middle ages
reversion to _____ explanations
supernatural

(brutal exorcisms and mass hysteria, group madness)
Depressed individuals are often of the _____/______/______ mindset
Stable, global, internal
what are major treatment approaches for panic disorders?
-cognitive-behavioral treatment of panic disorder incorporates self-monitoring, exposure to panic-related cues (including bodily sensations) and development of coping responses for handling panic attacks without catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily cues
-biomedical approaches incorporate use of antidepressant drugs, which have antianxiety and antipanic effects as well as antidepressant effects
examples of traumatic events
rape, sexual abuse, DV, witnessesing violent or criminal crimes, war, bombings, plane or care crashes, and natural disasters
incidence
the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time
dissociative identity disorder
2 or mor personalities coexist within a single ind, and one or both of the personalities may be unaware of the existence of the other. also known as multiple personality disorder
Family Predictors of childhood disorders
Low incomeOvercrowding at homeMaternal depressionPaternal antisocial behaviorConflict between parentsRemoval of child from home
construct validity
the degree to which a test measures the hypothetical construct it purports to measure
Causes of Panic
* Learned Behavior (lack of control, past experiences)* BIS and low reactivity (contributory)
Neurotransmitter Influences (Dopamine Hypothesis)
Drugs that increase dopamine (agonist) may cause schizo like behaviorDrugs that decrease dopamine (antagonist) may reduce schizophrenic-like behavior.
What is Operant Conditioning
Refers to the modification of voluntary behaviors.
shared and not shared environments
shared environment- factors include those things that members of a family have in common such as family income level, child rearing practices, and parents marital status and qualitynonshared environment- factors are those things believe to be distinct among members of family, such as relationships with friends or specific events unique to a person (ex being in a car accident or on the swim team). Important to understand why two siblings from the same family can be so different
Symptoms of Dysthymic Disorder
Two or more:
-poor appetite or overeating
-insomnia or hypersomnia
-low energy or fatigue
-low self esteem
-poor concentration or indecision
-hopelessness
Central feature of Dependent PDOnset of Dependent PD
Difficulty w/separation Early adulthood
Stimulants (uppers)
- (example: cocaine) - Act on brain and sympathetic nervous system to increase alertness and motor activity
Response Inventory
A test designed to measure a person's responses in one specific area of functioning.
What is a biological basis of schizophrenia?
enlarged brain ventricles
A correlation exists between occurrence of schizophrenia and __________
viral infection during pregnancy which impairs fetal brain development (born January-May 5-8% increased risk)
Cluster A is characterized by
-odd, eccentric or socially isolated behaviors
Average time of onset of dependence following initial use of a drug
2 to 3 years
What is response-contingent positive reinforcement?
Behaviors that increase in frequency as the result of performing actions that produce pleasure.
History of Schizophrenia:
1st grouped into a single disorder in late 19th century by Emily Kraeplin
Dementia Praecox (sever intellectual deteroiration of adolescent onset)
1911 - Eugene Bleuler - not always intellectual deterioration or adolescent onset
"Schizophrenia" = splitting of mental associaitons (split mind)
Genetic factors in alcohol abuse
having parents who were alcoholics increases the likelihood of the child developing the abuse
 
whether genetics is solely the reason is still up for debate because of the possibility of environmental and personality factors
modeling or observed learning
by Bandura; organisms don't have to experience situation/condition to learn from it; observing another going through it
ASPD 3+ of the following
1. Repeated law breaking2. Lying3. Impulsive4. Irritable 5. Reckless6. $$$$ Irresponsible 7. Lack of remorse
Gender Identity Disorder: Cause
- No specific biological link- Maybe learned in early life (forms between 18 months and 3 years)
Postpartum Onset Type Depression
-onset of depression within four weeks postpartum
-may include psychotic feratures
-may include anxiety and panic attacks
-risk is 1 in 500-1 in 1,000 births
-risk of psychotic postpartume depression increases to 30-50% if previous episode
104) A prime factor in nicotine’s highly addictive potential is (are)
immediate effect on pleasure sensors.
Deviation From Social Norms
Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviated from implicit rules about how one 'ought' to behave. Anything that violates these rules is considered abnormal.
most relevant etiological issues are
-nature of trauma and extent of exposure
biological factors for DIs
very little evidence and not much more speculation has been offered. no genetic contribution to dissociative symptoms
What are the characteristics of Schizophrenia, disorganized type?
A combination of symptoms, including disorganized speech, disturbed behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect.
What is the definition of stress?
The unpleasant emotional reaction a person has when he or she perceives an event to be threatening.
delusions of persecution 
the belief that people are out to get you
Describe the Interpersonal Theory of Depression
Sparse social networks that provide little support - Depressed people also elicit negative reactions from others and are low in social skills- They also constantly seek the reassurance of others
Variable A is paired with Variable B so that, eventually, the response automatically produced by Variable A is also produced by Variable B. Then, Variable B iw paired with Variable C, so that it too produces the same response. When Variable B is paired wi
b. unconditioned stimulus
-technique is higher order conditioning. When the original CS is paired with a second CS, the original CS is acting as a US
29) In the self-referent approach to interpreting a score, a person’s score today
is compared to his previous score.
example of classical conditioning
-women is assulted in the park so she associateds parks with her trauma nad wont enter a park
How are preschoolers and school aged children classified?
Preschool children are classified in the hyperactive-impulsive group, while school aged children fall into the combined group. Attention deficits begin during early school years.
Women- more likely to be agoraphobia
Men- substance abuse is the most common
4 methods of CBT treatment for Panic Disorders
-Education about anxiety and panic
-Teach Pt to induce PAs
-Interoceptive exposure
-Cognitive restructuring
Risk factors of Binge Eating Disorder (5)
- Childhood obesity- Low self-esteem- Depression- Physical or sexual abuse- Critical comments regarding weight
43) The core fear of individuals with panic disorder is
the symptoms of the panic attack.
How are these disorders often thought to relate to anorexia (e.g., are they thought to be primary or secondary)?
These disorders may be reactions to anorexia. These people often follow compulsive rituals in regard to eating. Depression has also been found to be a secondary rxn to starvation.
What Criteria do we use for it to be an Abnormal Condition?
-Causes personal distress-Is disabling-Violates Social norms
IPT is most extensively in treatment of...
Depression, but done with others as well
3. Which of the following is true about generalized anxiety disorder?
3. Its course tends to be chronic
 
 
 
 
3 subtypes of ADHD

 

Predominately inattentive: less hyperactive, more spacy

Predominantly hyperactive and impulsive (rare on its own)

Combined type: represents MOST cases of ADHD. More likely to have a wider range of problems, which is perhaps why it is more diagnosed. 
Studies on Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent suggests that psychosocial stressors:
a. play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first and second episodes
b. play an increasingly more significant role in the precipitation of later episode
a. play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first and second episodes - often follow a severe psychosocial stressor.... can become chronic
Opiates: *Effects *Examples
*Sedatives that relieves pain+induces sleep*Opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, valium, oxycontin
Anal Stage: Key issue+Potential responses
Control Overly demanding parents=Control freak kids Overly lenient=Disorganized slob kids
The friend of a psycho is the owner of a small publishing firm. The friend offers the psycho substantial compensation, if she would lend her name to endorsements for his publications, and at times advise and consult on book acquisitions and marketing plan
c. could accept this only if the pubs are in her area of competency and endorsements are honest
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Term:
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