Abnormal 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
methadone
any trauma
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Etiology
Causes of disorders
Depression
-Low mood
-Extraordinary sadness
-Dejection
paranoid schizophrenia
delusions of persecution
Withdrawal
-symptoms when absence occurs
Characteristics of Psychopathy
 
Antisocial behavior
examples
impulsivity and sensation-seeking
irresponsible, socially deviant lifestyle, unlwaful behavior
substance abuse
 
absence of guilt, empathy, conscience
grandios self worth
superficial charm, pathological lying, exploitative
 
GAD
Treatment-Select serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Paxil, Zoloft, Prozac)
Mood Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes (major depressive disorder, mania and bipolar disorder)
ethnic minority in PTSD
-more symptoms
stuporous state
catatonic posturing; reduced responsiveness; unaware of surroundings
 
Three Models
 
 
Depression can sometimes be predicted in advance based on these components 
 
Best when all used together (90% Success Rate)
Dyspareunia
genital pain associated with intercourse
Addiction
characterized by the three C's
craving to compulsion
continuance despite adverse consequences
loss of control
psychological disorder
psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impaired functioning and is not culturally accepted
Emotions before/after binges
Before: Tension/PowerlessnessAfter: Self-blame/guilt/depression/fear
Libido
Psychical energy derived from physiological drives.
138) Schizoid
personality disorder involves a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression in interpersonal settings.
Personality Disorders
Disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior and cognitive patterns that impair social functioning
-enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive (affects numerous parts of life)
-pattern is stable and of long duration and can be traced back to adolescence or early adulthood
-often unaware of the fact that their condition is unusual
Obsession
Recurrent intrusive thought or impulse the client seeks to suppress or neutralize while recognizing it is not imposed by outside forces.
Cluster B Characterisitics
-overly draumatics, flamboyant, emotional and or erratic behavior
Histrionic PD characteristics
-inappropriately seductive or provacative
-impressionistic style of speech
-suggestible and easily influenced by others and circumstances
-considers relationship to be more intimate than they are
 
 
 
 
 
Personality Traits
enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of contexts
Stereotypic movement disorder
self-stimulations or self-injurious behavior that is serious enough to require treatment
Counter Transference
therapists unconscious feelings toward a client
Sympathetic System
prepares your for the FFS
AIDS
-often times leads to severe psychological problems when adjusting
-said to be the worst news to ever find out
 
-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which attacks the immune system leaving it helpless to fend off diseases it normally would hold in check
Schizoid PD
-Pervasive detachment from social relationships
-Restricted range of emotional expression
-Neither desire nor enjoys close relationships
-Most always chooses solitary activities
-Little if any interest in sexual experiences w/ others
-Takes pleasure in few if any activities
-Lacks close friends or confidants
-Indifferent to praise or criticism of others
-Emotional coldness, detachment or flat affect.
Bulimia nervosa
frequent occurrence of binge-eating episodes, accompanied by a sense of loss of control of overating and
recurrent inappropiate behavior like purging food or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain
50x greater suicide completion rate than general population
AN
personality inventories
necessary data from psychological tests is what the answers predict
Harm Avoidance and EDO
Avoid harmful stimuli/situations
Thorndike
Law of effect, learning through consequences
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Community Psychology
concerned with modifying both individuals' behavior and the structure of the social system to produce optimal benefits for both society and the individual
deinstitutionalization
systematic removal of people with severe mental illness or mental retardation from institutions like psychiatric hospitals
greco roman categories for mental illness (3) and who created them?
mania
melancholia
phrenitis

hippocrates 400BC
Antisocial Personality Disorder
-person exhibits aggressive behavior and a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends/family
-onset occurs in adolescence
-almost exclusively occurs in men
-many with APD are criminals, but most violent criminals do not have it
Persons at high risk for developing alcohol-related problems tend to be more ________ than those at low risk.
impulsive
Behaviorism
Watson changed the focus of psychology to the study of overt behavior rather than the study of theoretical mentalistic constructs
Personality
refers to enduring ttraits that are fiarly stable over tiem or make a person who he or she is
Animal phobia
Unreasonable, enduring fear of animals or insects
Generally develops in early life
 
 
 
Note about personality disorders and the DSM-IV

Personality disorders are different than other psychological disorders in the DSM-IV. They aren’t part of a medical model because they aren’t really curable. That’s why they’re on axis 2.
 
selective mutism
involves consistent failure to speak in certain social situations
Greek & Roman Views
Hippocrates, considered mental disorders and physical illness with biological causes. Humoral Theory - disease caused by an excess or imbalance of blood, phlegm, or bile. Treatment - bleeding patients to music, message & baths
central nervous system
the brain and spinal chord
The disorder involving the experience of sudden loss of the sense of self is
depersonalization disorder.
Working Through
The psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming one's problem
Examples of Neurobiological assessments
MRI, PET, CAT scans
Cognitive behavior therapist known for his therapy for depression
Beck, A.
Asylum
confinement and care of people with mental illness
Unipolar Depression biological causal factors
-moderate genetic predisposition
-more severe forms of depression have stronger genetic influence
behavioral assessment
uses direct observation to assess formally an individual's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in specific situations or contexts
Panic Disorder
-recurrent panic attacks followed by big concern about repeated attacks-rule out substance abuse, social phobia, OCD, medication, etc-2/3 female, probably cultural factors-cross cultural differences, includes physical factors-early age onset-Tx: SSRI's, exposure tasks
Delusions
Firmly held beliefs in contrast to realityResistant to change
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that allow neurons to send signals across the synapse (gap) to another neuron. -Receptor sites on postsynaptic neuron absorb neurotransmitter-Excitatory & Inhibitory-Serotonin & Dopamine (depression, mania and schizophrenia)-Noreprephine (anxiety and stress disorders)
Pedophilia and Incest
Pedophilia: sexual attraction to unrelated childrenIncest: children related to perpetrator
Vulnerability-Stress Models
Comprehensive models of the many factors that lead some people to develop a given mental disorder.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the response that occurs automatically, before training, when the unconditioned stimulus is presented
Psychiatry
branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders
31) Of the many factors influencing the choice of assessment tools, one of the most important factors affecting a clinician’s choice is the
patient’s age.
early viewpoints on the causes of mental illness: (3)
biological
psychological
behavioral
The Learning Perspective explains anxiety disorders with (3)
Classical Conditioning (stimulus generalization also plays a role -- Little Albert)
Operant Conditioning (avoiding an anxiety-caused stimulus usually reinforces that behavior -- OCD)
Observational Learning (we learn many fears from watching others)
Lori just found out that she is pregnant. Her husband's fraternal twin has schizophrenia. What is her unborn child's risk of developing schizophrenia?
2%
Observational Research
Does not involve any manipulation of variables. instead, the researcher selects groups of interest
ASPD characteristics
-performing acts that are ground for arrest, decietfulness, impulsivity, consistent irresponsibilty and lack of remorse
How many people with eating disroders do not get treatment
75 percent
weight set point
Body maintains weight around weight set points, which are fixed weights or small ranges of weight. Maintaining weight near a set point is biologically adaptive
Developmental norms
behavior that is typical for children for a given age
Etiology of Bulimia: Sociocultural
ImpulsivityHunger so strong resulting in a binge, then guiltPressures get translated to physiology and learning processes
 
 
 
biological theories of separation anxiety (2)

Biological predisposition: may be genetic link to anxiety disorders

Behavioral inhibition: children are born with an inhibited, fearful temperament
All of the following are somatoform disorders EXCEPT
fugue disorder.
Dorothea Dix
(1802-1887) Made humane care a public concern in the US. She personally established 32 state hospitals
What is the DSM-IV?
Official diagnostic manual published by the American Psychiatric Association
70-80% qualify for ASP dx
25-30% are psychopathic
prison inmates
psychological diatheses (eating disorders)
perfectionism
negative body image and dieting
negative affect
8-9th leading cause of death in the US
Suicide
reciprocal geneenvironmental model
individual inherits tendency that puts them in more stressful situation which could trigger condition/disorder
Common course of Borderline PD
Instability/Suicide peak at adolescents-->lessen w/age
Oral Stage (Brief Overview)
Mouth is pleasure sourceCrisis=Being weaned2 Potential Probs 1. Oral incorporative-Dependent, gullible, jealous 2. Oral sadist-Verbal aggression
Panic D/O WITH Agoraphobia
(criteria)
- recurrent unexpected panic attacks
 
- one or more of the following during a month after a panic attack:(1)persistent concern about having additional attacks(2)worry about the implications of the attack(3)significant change in behavior related to attacks
 
- anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing
Anxiety Disorders -
A group of psychological disorders that can broadly be defined as emotional reactions out of proportion to threats from the environment. Anxiety disorders are usually associated with the anticipation of future problems.
Psychiatric Nurse
a registered nurse who has taken specialized training in the care of those with mental illness
Incidence
number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time
criminal commitment
legal procedure by which a person found not guilty of a crime by reason of insanity must be confined in a psychiatric hospital
prevalence
percentage of people in a given pop. who suffer from a disorder at a given point in time.
Disorganized and Delusional Thinking
-some schizophrenics are unable to keep their thoughts organized, and often switch focus in mid-sentence
-also experience delusions (false beliefs of persecution or grandeur)
-breakdown of one's selective attention
drug therapy for phobias
-antidepressant drugs have been used to social phobias
-usually best if combined with another type of treatment approach rather than alone
-studies show that drugs that work on the receptors of the amygdala lower symptoms with presentation of the feared stimuli
Treatment for Histrionic PD
behavior therapy to focus on interpersonal realtions
-has poor prognosis
First feature?
presence of one or more of the following: delusions, hallucinations, disorganzied speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior.
social factors of SDs
limited insight into their emotional distress and/or lack of social tolerance of psychological complaints
Bulimia - Purging type
Classic bulimiaEngage in use of vomiting or laxatives to get rid of food
sympathetic nervous system
pertaining to the division of the autonomic nervous system whose activity leads to heightened states of arousal
Panic and social
* stressful life events can trigger physical reactions* Triple vulnerability theory
Genetic Causes
Family studies show you can inherit a tendency for schizophrenia in general but not a particular subtype. And risk increases with genetic relatedess.Twin Studies show identical twin rick for schizo is 48%.and Adoption studies show risk for psychotic disorder remains high.
Dependent PD
-Excessive need to be taken car of, submissive and clinging behavior, and fear of separation.
-Diff making decisions w/o advice or reassurance
-Diff disagreeing due to fear of dispproval
-Seeks excessive nurturance/support from others
-Uncomfortable/helpless when alone due to fear of not being able to take care of self
-When close relationship ends, urgently seeks another for care and support
Second messengers
- play a role in adjusting the sensitivity of the post synaptic receptors to dopamine, norpinephrine, or serotonin. Help a neuron adjust to receptor sensitivity when it has been overly active
Psychoanalysts TheoryAbout the Cause of Mood Disorders
Psychoanalysts- depression as the product of anger directed inward, loss during the early psychosexual stages, or an overly punitive superego.
 
Gender Bias and Personality D/O
F: Histrionic, Borderline, Dependent M: ASPD, Narcissistic, OCSome clinicians pay attn to certain traits depending on gender
Amphetamines *Effects+mechanisms
*Increase alertness/motor activity, reduce fatigue, high energy, sleeplessness, reduce appetite, nervousness, agitation, confusion, paranoia*Tolerance happens quickly*NE and DA
Nature of personality disorders
- Heterogeneous group of disorders coded on Axis II of the DSM - Long standing, pervasive, and inflexible - Deviate from cultural expectations - Causes impairment in social and occupational situations - Can cause emotional distress
prospective studies
focus on individuals who are likely to aquire the disorder of interest
Projective Test
A test that consists of vague material that people interpret or respond to.
What do undifferentiated schizophrenics exhibit?
disordered thinking, but no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia
Empirical basis for dissociative disorders
-repression (however doubted in many scientific circles)
-hypnotized people without dissociative disorder accused of crimes often create and express a second personality
-fluctuations in pupil dilation and brain wave activity
-changes dominant hand in personalities
Anorexia Nervosa Binge Eating/ Puring Type
-regular binge eating and purging
EQUALLY COMMON
Which disorders are often comorbid with substance abuse disorders?
PDs, mood & anxiety disorders
 
 
 
Symptoms of autism
must show before age 3
more than half are retarded
 
deficits in social interaction

deficits in communication - echolalia, or no speech at all

deficits in activities and interests - sterotyped behavior such as rocking. narrow focus. need things to be ordered
 

 
Cluster B and the 4 disorders:
-Dramatic, erratic, and emotional

1. Histrionic Personality Disorder
2. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Borderline Personality Disorder
3. Antisocial Personality Disorder
psychological treatment of anorexia nervosa
first step is weight restoration
then psychoeducation (about nutritiation and health
then target dysfunctional attitudes
body shape
thinness=worth
control
family involvement (communication about eating/attitudes about body shape
treatment still worse lon-term than bulimia
Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent
two or more major depressive episodes occur and were separated by at least 2 months during which the individual was not depressed-episodes last from 2 months to years, average ~4-9 months
Latent content
Underlying meaning Via sensory stimulation, current concerns, id impulses
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia: 2 or more of (5) for 1 month
1. Delusions2. Hallucinations3. Disorganized Speech4. Grossly Disorganized or Catatonic5. Negative Symptoms
Major Depressive Disorder
The presence of one or more depressive episodes, with no history of mania or hypermania.
113) The 3 symptom categories in schizophrenia are
positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairments.
Diathesis-Stress Model
A belief that, in the case of certain disorders, individuals inherit a susceptibility for the disorder (diathesis) which develops only if the individual is exposed to difficult environmental conditions (stress). The greater the underlying vulnerability, the less stress is needed to trigger the disorder.
Any person can develop ptsd if they are exposed to _________
a sufficently intense trauma
Life time morbidity risk for schizo
Proportion of a specific population will be affected by the disorder at some time during their lives; 1%
 
 
 
dangerousness to self and others
individual is an immanent danger to him or herself
 
individual is an immanent danger to others
 
both used in involuntary commitment
What is the difference between Munchausen's syndrome and Munchausen's syndrome by proxy?
Those with Munchausen's syndrome spend time inflicting injury on themselves to receive medical attention while those with Munchausen's syndrome by proxy induces physical symptoms in someone else who is under their care.
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)
book that psychologists use to determine disorders
Describe the Psychological Theories of Mood Disorders (3)
1. Stressful life events2. Learned helplessness3. Attributional style- Internal- Stable- Global
What does it mean to be unable to read a sentence you have just written
pure alexia
94) Gender identity is a concept
of who you believe yourself to be.
National Eating Disorders Association says
- 20 percent of people have reported having an eating disorder
Critical mothers w/ ADHD children
Mothers w/ children who have ADHD are more critical, demanding, and controlling when compared to mothers with normal children. Problems in parenting are a reaction to the children's troubles and not a cause of them
ADHD
Reported statistics for comorbidity for ADHD are far from consistent. However, frequently-cited comorbidity rates are 30 to 50% for Conduct Disorder; 15 to 75% for a Mood Disorder; 25% for an Anxiety Disorder; and 10 to 29% for a Learning Disorder. C
Up to 70% of children with ADHD still meet the diagnostic criteria for the disorder in adolescence, and at least 50% continue to exhibit difficulties as adults. In these adults, the core symptoms of the disorder are still apparent but usually in an attenuated or modified form. The unfocused overactivity of childhood, for instance, is often manifested in adulthood as excessive restlessness.
The adaptive value of anxiety is:
Helps prepare for and respond to threat/danger
Mild to moderate anxiety enhances learning/performance
Dependent Personality Disorder(and co morbidity)
- Lack of Self-Reliance - Fear of abandonment - Lack of self-confidence- Indecisive- Submissive/passive, follower not a leader Co morbid with:Bipolar, depression, anxiety, and bulimia
11) In Aaron Beck’s cognitive model of depression, the cognitive triad consists of
negative thoughts of self, others, and future.
How might a fear of gaining weight contribute to the experience of anorexia?
It's the 3rd characteristic of anorexia. They fear that relaxing control, even just a little, will lead to a loss of control.
Three issues with self-report assessments.
- You are expecting the person to be honest- Reading level of test taker- The person has to be self-aware.
Behavioral Assessment/Observation (3)
- Used most frequently with children and severe mental illness
- Focuses on concepts on behaviorism

- Used with children or severely mentally ill b/c an adult will not participate in being overtly observed.

- Can prescribe a self-monitoring system for adults when observation wouldn't work.
6. Which technique appears to be the most effective treatment for phobias?
6. Exposure to the feared stimulus under therapeutic supervision.
What is the prodromal phase of schizophrenia?
A period prior to the active phase during which the individual shows progressive deterioration in social and interpersonal functioning. It is characterized by several maladaptive behaviors, such as social withdrawal, inability to work productively, eccentricity, poor grooming, inappropriate emotionality, peculiar thought and speech, unusual beliefs, odd perceptual experiences, and decreased energy and initiative.
In developing a tx plan for a child with conduct Disorder, which of the following would be most important to include:
a. social learning family intervention
b. pharmacotherapy
c. structural family therapy
d. contingency management and group therapy
a. social learning family intervention - family interventions most commonly tx for conduct disorder -
Mood D/O and NT
NE, DA, 5-HT MDD: Low levels of NE/DA Mania: High levels of NE/DABut this is not a 1:1 correlation, meds take 2-3 weeks after NT levels are restored
Barbiturates: *Used for: *Stimulates *Heavy dosage:
*Induces muscle relaxations, reduces anxiety, produces euphoria *GABA*Slurred speech*Unsteady gait*Impaired judgement *Irritability/combative*Accidental suffocation
If you are to be tested on a list of unrelated terms on Tuesday morning, you would be best advised to:
a. study a few weeks ahead of time to reduce proactive interference
b. study a few weeks ahead of time to reduce retroactive interference
c. study the d
d. study the day before to reduce retroactive interference proactive interference occurs when previously learned material interfers with recall of newly learned material
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Term:
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